By F. Abbas. Southwestern Adventist University.

The communication plan should identify a single individual effective detrol 1mg, team 4 mg detrol with amex, or agency responsible for responding to media enquiries and for managing public communication. It may be appropriate to have multiple key spokespeople, for example, a spokesperson for local issues and another spokesperson for national enquiries. Media communication during an outbreak is made considerably easier if the organisation has built a positive and co-operative long-term relationship with the media, often with a specific contact person. The credibility of the organisation combined with trained personnel is the strongest combination for success in this area. Positive and negative aspects of media/public communication Communicating with the public and media may assist with the immediate outbreak investigation and control, and also with longer-term health goals. It gives the capacity for providing essential advice on initial control measures to large numbers of people quickly, while at the same time providing an opportunity to deliver important health promotion messages relevant to the outbreak (e. Another important function is that communicating with the public and media provides early, accurate and on-going information about the situation, even if uncertainty exists, and about the progress of the investigation. A vacuum of no information will invariably be filled by less accurate sources and can damage trust in, and the credibility of, the lead agency responsible for managing the outbreak. If not done well, it can lead to mistrust, misrepresentation or distortion of the facts, undue sensationalisation of the outbreak or give the impression that a local problem is of national scale. Understanding the principles of risk communication and risk perception has progressed considerably 63 in recent years. General strategies to improve media communication Understand the needs of the media, notably deadlines and the specific requirements of print media, radio and television. For longer responses this will not be possible, as rotation of key staff becomes an important part of maintaining effective human resources. Screening When contacted by a reporter, first of all find out why they want an interview, what they wish to cover and their deadline. This will also assist in deciding if you are the most appropriate person to do the interview, and, if not, the matter should be referred on. Location Radio and television interviews can go better when they are done in a studio with the interviewer, but this is not always possible. For example, live interviews will be broadcast (the first time) unedited and this could be an advantage if the message is accurate, authoritative and acceptable. Effective performance during interview It is important to provide accurate information. With this in mind, tell the truth and do not exaggerate, if you make a mistake, correct it, and if you do not know, say so. Therefore, get your message in early, repeat it if necessary, and say it in an interesting way. Follow-up Review the item once it has been published or broadcast, and assess your performance. Writing a press release A press release does not need to read like a finely crafted journal article, but it should be written in a way that captures the journalist’s interest and provides the facts necessary for an article to be developed subsequently. A press release should be brief (one to two double-spaced pages) and written simply; it should be written so that the general public can understand it, not include jargon or technical terminology, or assume that the reader has any prior knowledge of the subject that is being discussed. To grab the journalist’s attention, the most important information should be at the 65 beginning of the release, followed by the details (or an explanation of the most important points). General media principles to consider in all significant foodborne outbreak situations involving food outlets The following section deals with a sensitive area that needs to be tackled with caution always bearing in mind that one is dealing with the livelihood of employees involved while trying to safeguard public health. Infected food handlers can transmit infection to patrons and co-workers while attending to their usual duties. Different situations may require specific interactions with the media, but some general principles regarding media contact will apply in most situations. It is usually necessary to identify and inform users of a facility or patrons of a food outlet to warn and advise them about the situation and/or provide post-exposure prophylaxis. If such a decision is made, the institution or food outlet facility management should be informed about the requirement to go public to protect public health, and their cooperation sought at the outset. The medical officer of health (or representative) should initially: make every effort to obtain accurate information and make informed judgments about its veracity consider the past history of the institution’s/food outlet’s performance determine the current status of food hygiene training, supervision and performance evaluation ascertain the availability and application of an approved hazard control procedure enquire about protocols for handling high-risk foods, hand hygiene practice, wearing of gloves, masks and head covers, reporting illnesses of significance and unintentional contamination of foods undertake a careful risk assessment using above information. This will also enable detection of more cases, thereby facilitating a more comprehensive investigation. However, such action could jeopardise business for the establishment involved (if named) or reduce consumption of the implicated food(s) in general. In such situations, all aspects should be carefully considered, with the need to protect the public being paramount. In almost all situations it will be necessary to contact the Ministry of Health as well as the Ministry for Primary Industries, as early as possible. Of the scenarios shown below, only scenario 3 may be considered for media involvement. The infected food-handler has not handled any foods, particularly high-risk foods. Contacting potentially exposed persons is rarely necessary (with the exception of co-workers of a person infected with hepatitis A).

This includes things like the measuring cup buy discount detrol 4 mg line, can opener and tongs purchase 1mg detrol fast delivery, as well as bottles and nipples. This includes things such as the measuring cup, can opener and tongs, as well as bottles and nipples. It is not safe to use well water that has high levels of chemicals or minerals to mix formula, even if you boil it. The Nova Scotia Department of Environment recommends that your well water be tested every 6 months for bacteria and every 2 years for chemical content. Use a measuring cup, not a bottle, to measure liquids because the measurements on bottles are not always accurate. For powdered formula: • It is not safe to use powdered formula for babies less than 2 months old. This includes things such as the measuring cup, can opener and tongs, as well as bottles and nipples. It is not safe to use well water that has high levels of chemicals or minerals to mix formula, even if you boil it. The Nova Scotia Department of Environment recommends that your well water be tested every 6 months for bacteria and every 2 years for chemical content. Use a measuring cup, not a bottle, to measure liquids because the measurements on bottles are not always accurate. The prepared bottle of formula may then be cooled to room or body temperature (37°C) by quickly placing the bottle under cold running water or into a container of cold or ice water prior to feeding the infant to avoid potential scalding • If preparing formula for later use, the water used to prepare the formula must be brought to a rolling boil for 1 minute, dispensed into containers of a maximum size of 1 L and cooled down to no less than 70°C (158°F) (cool for no more than 30 minutes at room temperature) before adding powder. The prepared bottle of Guidelines for Communicable Disease Prevention 27 and Control for Child Care Settings formula may then be cooled to room or body temperature (37°C) by quickly placing the bottle under cold running water or into a container of cold or ice water prior to feeding the infant to avoid potential scalding. Improper storage of food increases the capability for bacterial growth and can result in an outbreak of food poisoning. To properly prepare for picnics and outings, follow these guidelines: • Bring only non-perishable foods, if possible. Preparing and storing food properly is important if the program uses catered food. The caterer must protect the food from contamination both during transportation to the program and upon arrival. The covered containers must either be disposable or made of an easily cleanable, non-absorbent, food-grade material. The caterer must keep hot food at a temperature above 60°C (140°F) and cold food below 4°C (40°F). If the caterer does not supply utensils, the program must have them available as well as the ability to clean and sanitize them. The program must contact a Food Safety Specialist if the safety or integrity of the food is in question. To contact a Food Safety Specialist, please see: novascotia ca/nse/dept/ofces asp Guidelines for Communicable Disease Prevention 29 and Control for Child Care Settings 10. To properly store food, follow these guidelines: Refrigerated Foods: • Check that each refrigerated space has an accurate indicating thermometer. Store raw meats, fish, and poultry on the lowest shelf with all cooked ready-to-eat foods stored above. Avoid cross- contamination—do not use a knife to cut raw chicken and the same knife to cut cooked chicken. A safe method to clean and sanitize multi-service utensils should include either a three-compartment sink or a dishwasher. For specific details on cleaning and sanitizing, contact a Food Safety Specialist at novascotia ca/nse/dept/ofces asp 11. Some germs only live for a few hours, while others can live for several days or even weeks. Proper cleaning and disinfecting practices play an important part in preventing illnesses and infections in the program. To have a clean, safe environment, the program must develop and enforce proper cleaning and disinfection policies. To remove dirt, rub the surface with a cloth or towel moistened with a household detergent. The rubbing action creates friction and the detergent helps break down fats and proteins. Guidelines for Communicable Disease Prevention 31 and Control for Child Care Settings Cleaning removes some germs from a dirty surface, but does not necessarily remove all of the germs. A good way to remember the diference between cleaning and sanitizing is that cleaning gets rid of the dirt you can see, while sanitizing gets rid of most of the germs you can’t see. Always clean before sanitizing as dirt places a great demand on the chemical found in sanitizing solutions and reduces their efectiveness. If sanitizing is done without cleaning, the surface may not be properly sanitized. Use rubber gloves when sanitizing to avoid contact with corrosive materials that cause skin problems.

Each situation will be unique and will have to be addressed using the following criteria: Is the Cabin Crew member’s medical condition likely to be aggravated by his resumption of work and continuation of his flying career? The signs and symptoms of fatigue can be diverse and include: physical discomfort after overworking a particular group of muscles buy generic detrol 4 mg on line, difficulty in concentration or appreciating potentially important signals detrol 1mg without prescription, especially following long or irregular work hours, or just simply difficulty staying awake. In the context of flight operations, fatigue becomes important if it reduces alertness or crew performance or otherwise degrades safety or efficiency. Whilst subjective fatigue may be affected by motivation or the amount of stimulation coming from the environment, there are two physiological causes for fatigue, both of which are important in flight operations: (i) sleep loss and disturbance, and (ii) disruption to the body’s circadian rhythms. The deepest sleep occurs during Stages 3 and 4 and if awakened during this time, an individual may experience sleep inertia and, as a result, take some time to wake up and continue to feel sleepy and disorientated for 10-15 minutes. This 90 minute cycle repeats itself through a typical sleep period, although most deep sleep occurs in the first third of the night. Therefore, rest strategies that worked when an individual was younger do not necessarily work as they get older. Quality of sleep is just as important as quantity and disrupted sleep with multiple awakenings can have a significant effect on the total sleep period. Hence, during recovery sleep it is probable that, although an individual may sleep a little longer, the most notable feature will be an increase in deep sleep. Like food and water, sleep is a physiological need, vital to human survival and critical to human existence. Sleep loss can be additive and will result in a cumulative sleep debt, together with a feeling of increased waking sleepiness. The sleep debt must be repaid, and the symptoms of sleepiness taken seriously in view of their profound effects on waking performance, mood and alertness. This can lead to subsequent alcohol withdrawal effects in the second half of the sleep period which will include sleep fragmentation. Ironically therefore, although alcohol is often used to promote relaxation and sleep, it has major disruptive effects on the subsequent rest. When the body is physiologically deprived of sleep, the brain’s signal is one of sleepiness and just as the only way to reduce hunger or thirst is to eat or drink, when an individual is physiologically sleepy, only sleep will reverse this need. However, this self-reported rating can be strongly affected by other factors including environmental stimulation. The level of underlying physiological sleepiness can be concealed by an environment in which an individual is physically active, has consumed caffeine or is engaged in conversation. It is, therefore, often difficult for individuals to reliably estimate their own waking alertness, especially if they are already sleepy. Indeed, overall, there is a tendency for individuals to rate themselves as more alert than is indicated by physiological measures, in other words, they are more likely to be sleepier than they report. There are many factors which may affect sleepiness apart from prior sleep and wakefulness and include circadian phase, the age of the individual, ‘prescription only’ or ‘over the counter’ medications and the effect of any alcohol consumed. Whilst the subject of circadian rhythms will be dealt with in more detail in the next section, it is nonetheless appropriate to consider circadian phase in the context of sleep. Human beings are physiologically programmed to experience two periods of maximal sleepiness in a normal 24 hour cycle. The period from 0300-0500 is a circadian low point for temperature, performance and alertness and during this time the brain triggers sleep and sleepiness. The other period of increased sleepiness is between 1500 and 1700, and most individuals will have experienced an afternoon wave of sleepiness. These windows can be usefully employed to schedule sleep periods or naps when the brain provides a period of maximum sleepiness and an increased opportunity for sleep. Unless information related to time is received from the environment, the clock tends to run slow with the biological day set at longer than 24 hours. One of the most important environmental time cues which synchronises our internal clock to a 24 hour day is bright light. However, it is likely that other aspects of the social environment also provide time cues although these have yet to be identified clearly and the specific mechanisms by which they affect the internal clock remain unknown. The circadian clock cannot adapt immediately to a new environmental time and, as a result, crossing time zones will result in it being out of phase with the new time at the destination. In addition, circadian rhythms for different functions adjust more or less quickly, depending on their own innate rhythm and their interactions with other physiological functions. Thus, after a trans meridian flight, not only is the circadian clock out of step with the external environmental cues, but different internal physiological functions are out of step one with another. In addition, different people adapt at different rates with, in general, the ability to adapt decreasing with age. Finally, individuals who fall into the category of ‘evening types’ (those who are most alert in the later portion of the day) appear to adapt faster than ‘morning types’ (those who are most alert in the early portion of the day) and also show lower levels of daytime sleepiness following eastward flights. The first is as a result of duty periods occurring at unusual or changing times in the day/night sleep cycle and the second when there is a requirement for time zone crossings. This leads to: (i) conflict between the environmental time (in the case of unusual or changing work schedules) or local time (in the case of changing time zones) and body times, and (ii) circadian disruption when the body is required to adjust continuously between day and night schedules. In addition, a further factor that can create sleep loss is a prolonged period of continuous wakefulness. It is clear that a protracted duty period can create fatigue by extending wakefulness and decreasing sleep and may also involve circadian disruption.