By P. Marik. Ouachita Baptist University.
The ovarian arteries in the female and testicular arteries in the male (formerly called the spermatic arteries) 60 ml rogaine 2 with amex, supply the sex glands cheap rogaine 2 60 ml with amex. Both of these vessels, about 5 cm long, extend into 277 Human Anatomy and Physiology the pelvis, where each one subdivides into an internal and an external iliac artery. The internal iliac vessels then send branches to the pelvic organs, including the urinary bladder, the rectum, and some of the reproductive organs. These vessels give off branches in the thigh and then become the popliteal arteries, which subdivide below the knee. Other Subdivisions of Systemic Arteries Just as the larger branches of a tree give off limbs of varying sizes, so the arterial tree has a multitude of subdivisions. For example, each common carotid artery gives off branches to the thyroid gland and other structures in the neck before dividing into the external and internal carotid artery, which supplies parts of the head. The hand receives blood from the subclavian artery, which becomes the axillary in the axilla (armpit). It subdivides into two branches near the elbow: the radial artery, which continues down the thumb side of the forearm and wrist, and the ulnar artery, which extends along the medial or little finger side into the hand. The circle of Willis receives blood from the two internal carotid arteries as well as from the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries. This arterial circle lies just under the center of the brain and sends branches to the cerebrum and other parts of the brain. The mesenteric arches are made of communications between branches of the vessels that supply blood to the intestinal. Arterial arches are formed by the union of branches of the tibial arteries in the foot, and similar anastomoses are found in various parts of the body. Arteiovenous anastomoses are found in a few parts of the body, including the external ears, the hands, and the feet. Vessels that have muscular walls connect arteries directly with veins and thus bypass the capillaries. This provides a more rapid flow and a greater volume of blood to these areas the elsewhere, thus protecting these exposed parts from freezing in cold weather. Those at the elbow are often used for removing blood samples for test purposes, as well as for intravenous injections. The great saphenous vein begins in the foot and extends up the medial side of the leg, the knee, and the thigh. Deep Veins The deep veins tend to parallel arteries and usually have the same names as the corresponding arteries. Examples of these include the femoral and the iliac vessels of the lower part of the body and the brachial, axillary, and subclavian vessels of the upper extremities. Two brachiocephalic 280 Human Anatomy and Physiology (innominate) veins are formed, one on each side, by the union of the subclavian and the jugular veins. Superior Vena Cava The veins of the head, neck, upper extremities, and chest all drain into the superior vena cava, which goes to the heart. It is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins, which drain the head, neck, and upper extremities. The azygos vein drains the veins of the chest wall and empties into the superior vena cava just before the latter empties into the heart (Figure 9-10). Inferior Vena Cava The inferior vena cava, which is much longer than the superior vena cava, returns the blood from the parts of the body below the diaphragm. It then ascends along the back wall of the abdomen, through a groove in the posterior part of the liver, through the diaphragm, and finally through the lower thorax to empty into the right atrium of the heart. They include the iliac veins from near the groin, four pairs of lumbar veins from the dorsal part of the trunk and from the spinal cord, the testicular veins from the testes of the male and the ovarian veins fro m the ovaries of the female, the renal and suprarenal veins from the kidneys and adrenal glands near the kidneys, and finally the large hepatic veins from the liver. The left testicular in the male and the left ovarian in the female empty into the left renal vein, which then take this blood to the inferior venal cava; these veins thus constitute exceptions to the rule that the paired veins empty directly into vena cava. Unpaired veins that come from the spleen and from parts of the digestive tract (stomach and intestine) and empty into a vein called the portal vein. Unlike other veins, which empty into the inferior vena cava, the hepatic portal vein is part of a special system that enables blood to circulate through the liver before returning to the heart. They in include the pulmonary artery and its branches to the capillaries in the lungs, as well as the veins that drain those capillaries. The pulmonary arteries carry blood low in oxygen from the right ventricle, while the pulmonary veins carry blood high in oxygen from the lungs into the left atrium. It takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body, including some lung tissue (not air sac or alveolus) and returns the deoxygenated blood to the right atrium, through the systemic veins; the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus. Two of the several subdivisions are the coronary circulation and the hepatic portal system or circulation.
Table 61 displays the risk differences and elements for the synthesis of evidence for this comparison purchase rogaine 2 60 ml otc. In a third trial trusted 60 ml rogaine 2, it was unclear whether the reporting unit was the patient or an incident event. These three trials were 105 included in the synthesis of evidence only to assess consistency of effect. Only one trial reported palpitations (risk difference 2 percent, favoring oral antihistamine to avoid palpitations). Fifty-four percent of the patient 101, 103 sample was in good quality trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid sedation. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid headache. To avoid insomnia, there is moderate strength evidence favoring oral selective antihistamine rather than oral decongestant. Fifty-four percent of the patient sample for 101, 103 this adverse event was in good quality trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Seventy-two percent of the patient sample for this 101, 105 adverse event was in trials that reported statistically nonsignificant risk differences. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid anxiety. Oral Selective Antihistamine Versus Oral Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist (Montelukast) Key Points 108, 110-112 Four of nine trials reporting efficacy outcomes also reported adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to support the use of either selective oral antihistamine or oral leukotriene receptor antagonist to avoid headache as an adverse outcome. Although the body of evidence included less than half of the trials identified for efficacy, the finding is 97, 109, 113, 114 indirectly supported by the assertions of four other trials that adverse events were similar in frequency between trial arms. Synthesis and Evidence Assessment 108, 110-112 Four of nine trials reporting efficacy outcomes also reported adverse events. Four 97, 109, 113, 114 other trials did not report specific events, but included statements suggesting that there were no differences between groups with regard to adverse events. Table 62 displays the risk differences and elements for the synthesis of evidence for this comparison. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid 97, 109, 113, 114 headache. This finding is consistent with four trials that did not report group level incidences of adverse events but reported no between-group differences. Evidence was insufficient to support the use of either intranasal corticosteroid or nasal antihistamine to avoid any of the following adverse events reported in eight trials: sedation, headache, nasal discomfort, bitter aftertaste, and nosebleeds. Synthesis and Evidence Assessment 115-119, 121 Eight of nine trials that reported efficacy outcomes also reported adverse events. Table 63 displays the risk differences and elements for the synthesis of evidence for this comparison. These trials were included in the synthesis of evidence only to assess 116 consistency of effect. Only one trial reported burning or dryness (risk differences 2 percent, favoring nasal antihistamine to avoid dryness, and 4 percent, favoring intranasal corticosteroids to avoid burning). Sixty-seven percent of the 115 patient sample for this adverse event was in a good quality trial that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid sedation. Eighty-five percent of the 115 patient sample for this adverse event was in good quality trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid headache. Sixty- 115 nine percent of the patient sample for this adverse event was in good quality trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid nasal discomfort. Seventy-eight percent of the patient sample for this adverse event was in good quality 115 trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid a bitter aftertaste. Eighty percent of the patient 115 sample for this adverse event was in good quality trials that actively ascertained adverse events. Evidence was insufficient to conclude that either comparator is favored to avoid nosebleeds. Intranasal Corticosteroid Versus Nasal Cromolyn Key Points 122, 125 Data for synthesis was available from two small trials with three direct 122 125 comparisons. Both trials were rated poor quality; one had both passive ascertainment of harms and inadequate patient blinding. Evidence was insufficient to support the use of either intranasal corticosteroid or nasal cromolyn to avoid any of the following adverse events: headache, dryness, burning, nasal discomfort, and nosebleeds.
Minerals Function Food sources Calcium Gives bones and teeth rigidity and Milk buy discount rogaine 2 60 ml online, cheese and dairy products strength Foods fortiﬁed with calcium purchase rogaine 2 60 ml fast delivery, e. The vitamins and minerals that make up micronutrients have a crucial role in enabling the body to function properly. Your role as a Health Extension Practitioner is to advise people in your community to have a balanced diet that includes micronutrients. You will learn more about micronutrients in Study Session 7, in particular the impact of deﬁciencies in vitamin A, iron and iodine on individuals and communities. In this section we’ll discuss what a balanced diet is and the beneﬁts of a balanced diet. It is important that you know enough to be able to recommend a balanced diet for the people in your community. Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in small amounts, namely saturated fat, cholesterol, simple sugar, salt and alcohol. The goal is to take in all of the nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels and perhaps restrict those things that are not good for the body. Then you can decide if people need help or food from the other food groups further support or information to improve the balance of things they eat. It helps us identify the food groups people should combine in order to make a balanced diet. The food groups at the top of the pyramid should be eaten in moderation (small amount) but food groups at the bottom of the pyramid should be eaten in larger amounts. For example, ‘injera’ is the staple diet in many sites, maize in other areas, and ‘kocho’ in the southern part of the country. These foods are usually cheap, and provide most of the energy, protein and ﬁbre in a meal, as well as some vitamins. For example, legumes such as peas, beans and lentils add protein, iron and other minerals and fat; green and yellow vegetables and fruits add vitamins A and C, folate, and ﬁbre. A diet which is composed of staples, legumes and vegetables or fruits is a good, balanced diet because this combination of foods will provide most of the nutrients that the people in your community need. Animal sources are good because they contain plenty of protein, have high energy (due to the fats), and the iron is easily absorbed compared with the iron sourced from plants. Therefore adding small amounts of animal products like meat, milk and eggs to staples, legumes and vegetables will improve the balanced diet. As well as protein, animal foods will also provide fat (for energy) and vitamins (especially vitamin A and folate), iron and zinc. But these foods may not be easily available and even if they are, they are usually expensive. You could create a balanced diet by mixing ‘injera’ (as a staple food), stew (‘wot’) made of beans/lentils, oil, ‘shiro’ and cabbage. Summary of Study Session 2 In Study Session 2 you have learned that: 1 Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water and ﬁbre are the main groups of nutrients which together, but in variable amounts, make up a balanced diet. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water are macronutrients, and vitamins and minerals are micronutrients. Therefore people in your community need to eat more of the unsaturated fats and try to reduce their intake of saturated fats. The minerals that are of most importance are calcium, iron, iodine, zinc and ﬂuorine. You need to know the commonly used food groups in order to advise the people in your community on how to have a balanced diet. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module. In this session you will learn about the nutritional needs at different stages of the lifecycle. The nutrient requirements during the four main stages of the human lifecycle vary considerably. What infants and children require is different from what adults and the elderly need. In addition, there might be speciﬁc nutrients which a pregnant women and lactating mothers need in higher amounts than adult men. Therefore, as a Health Extension Practitioner, this study session will help you to give the appropriate messages to different population groups. Learning Outcomes for Study Session 3 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: 3. Diagnostic reasons: mainly to identify whether a group or an individual is suffering from malnutrition of any kind; for example:. In order to estimate nutritional requirements of individuals or groups, we need to consider the following factors:. Based on these factors, nutritional requirements in the different segments of the population can be classiﬁed into four groups.