By C. Redge. Flagler College.

Kohn’s commitment to helping members of – mundane and medical communities express themselves profound – of their goes back to his early years at Northeast Ohio Medical University buy actonel 35 mg with amex, where he founded an chosen profession order 35mg actonel visa. But it wasn’t until he had co-founded and begun co-directing the Center for Literature in Medicine at Northeast Ohio’s Hiram College that he had a real epiphany about arts and medicine. He had started collaborating with the then-named Great Lakes Theater Festival, working with theater artists on a narrative bioethics program and “It just opened up my world,” he said. In this way, his Medical Humanities program has sought to help students refect on their identity, their role in society and larger cultural patterns as they face the issues – mundane and profound – of their chosen profession. Kohn’s approach helps turn a young doctor like Bryan Sisk into a different type of physician: one who is not only a scientist, but a human being, as well. He found that the group writing exercises, thought-provoking speakers and the wide range of arts and media that made up his training in humanities at Lerner have given him the ability to cope better with his patients’ feelings and his own. The following best practices are important considerations when developing and implementing programs that bring together the arts and culture and the health and human services sectors: • Understanding context. Before embarking on an arts and health program, it is essential for all parties involved to develop a solid understanding of what populations will be served, what their specifc needs are and what available resources exist for implementing the program. It is essential that arts and culture practitioners recognize the unique strengths, challenges and backgrounds of each participant, as well as the resources and limitations of each healthcare setting. Funding arts and health programs can be challenging in light of lower levels of available philanthropic support, limitations on what types of activities are covered by insurance, and rising healthcare costs. The formation of strategic alliances can help broaden the base of philanthropic support, while research can provide evidence that documents the medical costs savings and other benefts associated with such interventions. In order to achieve full integration of, and participation in, arts and health activities, it is important to consider barriers to access. For example, artists who are not trained expressive arts therapists may not know how to get involved in healthcare facilities, healthcare providers might have preconceived ideas about the nature of arts and culture activities and patients may think they are not skilled enough to participate. Additionally, practical barriers may include diffculty traveling to arts and health programs, lack of funding for programs and inadequate space to carry out programs. Collaborations can yield numerous benefts such as the sharing of expertise, access to resources and greater effciency and effectiveness of service delivery. When the arts and health felds intersect, partnership offers a way to further humanize healthcare settings and empower patients to share their stories and interact with others in different ways. As with any collaboration, success is achievable only when the parties involved communicate regularly, set clear and measurable goals and delineate expectations. Populations being served should also be given opportunities to share their experiences and talk about what best meets their needs. The collection and dissemination of verifable, high-quality data are essential to bolstering the case for continued integration of the arts and culture and health and human services sectors. The most powerful accounts meld quantitative data into a patient’s personal journey. In this way, the patient’s story humanizes the numbers in data tables, while the data tables can lend verifability to the intrinsic values of arts and culture experience. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 63 Creative Minds in Medicine • Educating the public, healthcare professionals and artists about the intersection. In order to foster and strengthen the intersection between arts and health, it is essential for arts and health stakeholders to be given opportunities to share their experiences and educate others about the different ways arts and health intersect. Since the intersection runs along a continuum that varies according to factors such as engagement, programmatic structure and goals, it is important to think about arts and health defnitions broadly to invite new avenues for participation. When introducing arts and culture into healthcare settings, strategies to ensure the maintenance of sterile environments are essential to protecting the safety of patients. For artists, gaining a shared understanding with healthcare providers during the development of arts and health projects can allow them to customize programming to meet the special needs of patients and understand how to best engage them in arts and culture activities. Conversely, for healthcare providers who are inviting artists to do work in their facilities, orientation sessions can be useful because artists’ levels of clinical experience with patients may vary. Such training can include primers on privacy requirements, workplace safety regulations, management of emotionally challenging situations and working with different populations. Recommendations for Future Policy The health and human services sector provides assistance to people from all backgrounds at some of the most defning moments of their lives. This white paper has highlighted four overarching views of how arts and culture intersect with the health and human services feld: through arts and culture integration in healthcare environments; direct patient engagement in arts and culture activities; community-based, arts and culture projects that address public health issues; and the incorporation of arts and culture in medical curricula. This paper has also shown a breadth of examples of what is happening between the arts and health felds in Cleveland. While not exhaustive, this white paper’s goal was to defne and identify a sampling of the strong body of work that is resulting from collaboration among the wealth of local arts and health assets. While Cleveland’s legacy as an industrial city has left it with signifcant challenges, it is also responsible for giving the city key assets that are defning its future.

To prevent the disease purchase actonel 35mg with amex, nonimmune persons who must go into the jungle should use insect repellents on exposed body parts and on clothing actonel 35 mg visa. Regular use of chemo- prophylaxis would be justified only if the nonimmune person had to live in an area where human malaria is endemic. A primate model for human cerebral malaria: Plasmodium coatneyi-infected rhesus monkeys. In: First Inter- American Conference on Conservation and Utilization of American Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research. Studies on transmission of simian malaria and on a natural infection of man with Plasmodium simium in Brazil. Sero-epidemiological stud- ies of malaria in Indian tribes of the Amazon Basin of Brazil. The evolution of primate malaria parasites based on the gene encoding cytochrome b from the linear mitochondial genome. A nonhuman primate model for human cerebral malaria: Rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with Plasmodium fragile. Plasmodium ovale: Observations on the parasite development in Saimiri monkey hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro in contrast with its inability to induce parasitemia. Hydrolytic enzymes of rhesus placenta during Plasmodium cynomolgi infection: Ultrastructural and biochemical studies. Although there are some 700 species that infect verte- brates and invertebrates, the species identified to date as parasites of man are Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis (formerly Septata intesti- nalis), Encephalitozoon hellem, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and some species of the genera Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, and Vittaforma (Scaglia et al. Enterocytozoon causes intestinal infections almost exclusively, while Encephalitozoon may cause intestinal or systemic infections which may spread to various organs. Parasites of the genera Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, and Vittaforma are uncommon in man and do not affect the intestine (Field et al. Proof of the existence of isolates with genetic differences exists, at least within E. The genera Cryptosporidium, Isospora, and Cyclospora belong to a completely different phylum: Apicomplexa (formerly Esporozoa). Microsporidia are small intracellular protozoa that undergo a phase of asexual mul- tiplication—merogony—followed by a phase of sexual multiplication—sporogony— during which they produce spores, or oocysts, inside the infected cell. The spores are released from the host cell and are eliminated into the external environment, where they may infect other individuals. They are small, double-walled bodies measuring 1 µm to 3 µm which contain a parasitic cell, or sporoplasm, with one or two nuclei. At their anterior end, they have an extrusion apparatus, the polaroplast, which everts the polar tube or filament that is coiled around the polaroplast and sporoplasm within the spore. Infection takes place when the polar tube is extruded and penetrates the host cell, allowing the sporoplasm to pass through it and enter the host. Occurrence in Man: Microsporidiosis is one of the most frequent complications occurring in immunodeficient patients, but it is rare in immunocompetent individu- als. As of 1994, more than 400 cases had been recognized, most in immunodeficient patients. The parasites were detected in 60% of patients with chronic diarrhea but in only 5. Occurrence in Animals: Microsporidiosis occurs in a great number of vertebrate and invertebrate species, but as it is not generally pathogenic for vertebrates, its dis- covery is accidental, and there are thus no reliable statistics on its frequency. The clinical manifestations include chronic diarrhea with passage of watery or semi-watery stools numerous times (2–8) a day, but without evidence of intestinal hemorrhage; malabsorption with atrophy of the microvilli, which is aggravated by the ingestion of food; and subsequent progressive and irreversible weight loss. Although the causes of the intestinal disease are not well understood, it is presumed that it is due to loss of microvilli and enterocytes. Trachipleistophora hominis may affect the skeletal musculature, the cornea, and the upper respiratory tract (Field et al. The Disease in Animals: Most infections in vertebrates seem to be asympto- matic, except for E. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: The presence of microsporidia spores in the host stools and urine suggests that the infection could be transmitted by fecal or urinary contamination of the environment, especially water. Diagnosis: Diagnosis of microsporidiosis is difficult owing to the small size of the spores. Specimens are obtained, inter alia, from body fluids, feces, duodenal aspirates, urinary sediment, and corneal scrapings, and they are then stained using methods that facilitate microscopic examination. Fluorescence with calcofluor white is the most sensitive method but, as it also stains yeast cells, it may give false posi- tive results. Weber’s modified trichrome stain is almost as sensitive as calcofluor white, but it is more specific because it does not stain yeasts; however, it is slower.

Ensuring this consistency was a major advance and is an essential first All-Cause Mortality for 192 Countries step in measuring the disease burden buy cheap actonel 35mg. If the sample registration systems of China and carrying out analysis for a single cause trusted 35mg actonel, researchers may India are considered to provide information on their entire easily be overinclusive in counting the deaths attributable to populations, then information is available for around 72 per- the cause of interest, even without any intent to maximize cent of the global population. Agency for International Development and the number of deaths by age and sex provided an essential Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey program carried out by “envelope” that constrained individual disease and injury the United Nations Children’s Fund. Competing claims for the magnitude of sources of information on levels of child and adult all-cause The Burden of Disease and Mortality by Condition: Data, Methods, and Results for 2001 | 51 Table 3. Completeness of death registration data was assessed using standard demographic methods (see text). Includes countries where death registration data for years prior to 2001 were used to project levels of child and adult mortality to construct a life table based on a country standard derived from the last available year of death registration data. Note that these estimates refer to de facto popula- techniques (Preston-Coale, Brass growth-balance, general- tions, that is, they include residents such as guest workers ized growth-balance, and Bennett-Horiuchi methods) were and refugees, rather than de jure populations, meaning citi- first applied, as appropriate, to assess the extent of com- zens, and in some countries, permanent residents. Death registration data may cover tion for children was assessed separately using other avail- less than 100 percent of the population not only because able sources of information on child mortality. Murray these rates to the United Nations Population Division esti- Based on the predicted level of child mortality in 2001, mates of de facto populations for 2001. Such data ity (Lopez and others 2002; Murray, Ferguson, and others were used directly to construct life tables for 56 countries 2003). These estimated levels of child and adult mortality after adjusting for incomplete registration if necessary. Evidence on adult (adjusted if the registration level was incomplete) mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries remains lim- between 1985 and the latest available year was used to ited, even in areas with successful child and maternal project levels of child and adult mortality for 2001. This groups: method was applied for 40 countries using a total of 711 country-years of death registration data. Beyond this level, two further disaggre- from death registration data, official life tables, or mor- gation levels were used, resulting in a complete cause list tality information derived from other sources such as of 136 categories of specific diseases and injuries. The extent of underre- Group I causes of death consist of the cluster of condi- porting of deaths in the 2000 census was estimated at tions that typically decline at a faster pace than all-cause about 11. The all-cause mortality enve- mortality populations, Group I dominates the cause of lope for India was derived from a time series analysis of death pattern, whereas in low-mortality populations, age-specific death rates from the Sample Registration Group I accounts for only a small proportion of deaths. Note also that a number of causes of death act of deaths occurring during the perinatal period, such as as risk factors for other diseases. Although each revision has diabetes are included, the global total of attributable deaths produced some discontinuities in cause of death data, the rises to almost 3 million (Roglic and others 2005). Additional problems in compar- and blindness (mortality attributable to blindness whether ing data on causes of death across countries arise from vari- from infectious or noninfectious causes). In most developed countries, medical practitioners certify Countries with Complete or Incomplete Death the underlying cause of death even though they may not Registration Data always have had prior contact with the deceased or access to relevant medical records. Where the latest available year was earlier than 2001, stantially across countries with death registration systems. The threshold of coverage of 85 percent used for causes of death differs from that used for registration of deaths (95 percent) because the biases from underreporting of the fact of death are more serious for assessing levels of all-cause mortality than for assessing the distribution of causes. Includes countries with death registration or surveillance systems relying heavily on verbal autopsy methods for ascertaining causes of death. These garbage codes or ill-defined codes include Deaths resulting from war are not systematically includ- deaths from injuries where the intent was not determined ed in the cause of death data. The percentage of deaths coded using other sources of information as described later. When the coverage of death ing data on death registrations since 1990 with at least registration data was assessed as less than 85 percent, cause 50 percent completeness or coverage. In more than 15 information on cause of death distributions was available for high-income countries, more than 10 percent of deaths 37 percent of the world’s population, or 76 percent if China were coded to these ill-defined conditions, not so much and India’s sample registration and mortality surveillance because of overuse of codes for symptoms, signs, and ill- systems were included. Correction algorithms were also applied tion data with information on underlying cause available for to resolve problems of miscoding for the cardiovascular, each country, together with information on the methods cancer, and injury garbage codes. These include codes for heart failure, ven- causes there is substantial use of coding categories for un- tricular dysrhythmias, generalized atherosclerosis, and ill- known and ill-defined causes. Note: Table includes those countries supplying data on death registration for most recent year since 1990 and with at least 50 percent completeness or coverage. These data exclude South Africa, where 93 percent of deaths from external causes were coded to ill-defined injuries. For each country, the fraction of car- diovascular deaths (excluding stroke) assigned to the ill- 0. This second group includes Australia, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom (Scotland). In other countries, including Australia, Statistical models can only go so far in extracting truth from Canada, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, and the poorly coded deaths data, and more precise country-specific United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Scotland), no cor- analyses really require recoding studies for samples of rele- rections were suggested by this analysis. Second, due to the nonstandard disease death rates across countries from a fivefold to a fourfold classification used in Russia and other newly independent variation and also change the relative rankings of countries. The use of the code “sudden death” to 70 percent greater in females compared with what was describe mortality often associated with binge drinking in recorded in vital statistics. This com- system into an urban stratum and four socioeconomic stra- parison identified four sites that did not appear to have any ta for rural areas, based on an analysis of nine indicators for significant coding of cancer deaths to the garbage codes rural counties from the 1990 national census.

Structure of the gene of tum transplantation antigen P91A: the mutated exon encodes a peptide recognized with Ld by cytolytic T cells buy 35mg actonel with mastercard. A 44 kilodalton cell surface homodimer regulates interleukin 2 production by activated human T lymphocytes buy discount actonel 35 mg online. Intracavitary Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in the treatment of superficial bladder tumors. Cancer regression and autoimmunity induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade in patients with metastatic melanoma. Anti- programmed-death-receptor-1 treatment with pembrolizumab in ipilimumab-refractory advanced melanoma: a randomised dose-comparison cohort of a phase 1 trial. Gene transfer into humans-- immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction. Half or more of the somatic mutations in cancers of self- renewing tissues originate prior to tumor initiation. Development of ipilimumab: a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Edvard Smith , Rikard Holmdahl , Olle Kämpe & Klas Kärre 1 2 3 Professor of Molecular Genetics; Professor of Medical Inflammation Research; Professor of Clinical 4 Endocrinology; Professor of Molecular Immunology Adjunct Members of the Nobel Committee and Members of the Nobel Assembly Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, September 30, 2018 Correspondence: edvard. It also ofers physicians a greater understanding of the standards and requirements imposed on them by law. This will better equip physicians to recognize and avoid medical-legal difculties. It is important to highlight that some of the legal principles addressed in this document arise out of the common law system, which applies to all provinces and territories in Canada except Québec. Similarities exist nevertheless in the application of these two legal traditions in Canada. The interaction between law and medicine permeates almost all aspects of a physician’s practice and, of course, goes far beyond events or mishaps that might give rise to litigation. They receive the beneft of advice from people who understand their situation — experienced physician advisors who are doctors with clinical practice backgrounds in various specialties and settings. Physician advisors are available to provide advice and, when warranted, arrange further legal assistance for matters arising from a member’s professional work, including the following: ▪ civil legal actions ▪ regulatory authority (College) complaints, investigations, and disciplinary hearings ▪ coroners’ inquests or other fatality inquiries ▪ billing audits or inquiries ▪ hospital privilege matters ▪ criminal proceedings ▪ some general contract or research contract matters ▪ privacy legislation breaches and privacy complaints ▪ human rights complaints When members face a medical-legal action, they are eligible for assistance in the form of legal representation, and payment of legal costs, judgments, or settlements to compensate patients where it is determined those patients have been harmed by negligent care (in Québec, professional fault). The Canadian Medical Protective Association 1 Legal proceedings The Canadian legal system Generally speaking, activities are governed by two sources of law: the law created by statute, either federally, provincially, or territorially; and the common law developed by judgments rendered in legal actions that have proceeded through the courts. In Québec, a codifed system of civil law is used, though for the most part the underlying principles of medical-legal jurisprudence are similar in common law provinces and territories. A civil action involves the resolution of disputes between two or more parties by resort to the litigation process. Criminal actions involve the prosecution of an individual charged with committing an ofence as defned by statute, usually the federal Criminal Code. Civil and criminal actions are heard by much the same courts, although the jurisdiction of some courts is split into civil and criminal divisions. An absolute right to a jury is only available to plaintifs in a civil action in Saskatchewan. Traditionally, civil actions in the remaining provinces and territories are heard by a judge alone, but in recent years there has been an increasing trend toward jury trials. A defendant in a civil action may be found liable if the essential elements of the claim are established on a balance of probability, while the accused in a criminal action will not be found guilty unless the charge is proven beyond a reasonable doubt. A defendant found liable in a civil action must pay an amount of money awarded to the plaintif in damages. The plaintif or defendant in a civil action, and the Crown or the accused in a criminal action, may appeal any judgment rendered. The appellate court will not interfere with the decision, however, unless the court is satisfed there has been an error in law or the decision is plainly unreasonable and unjust when reviewing the evidence as a whole. While the accused in a criminal action may appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada without permission (depending on the circumstances), a party in a civil action must obtain the leave (permission) of the court to appeal the judgment of a provincial or territorial Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada. The Canadian Medical Protective Association 3 The litigation process A number of events might alert the physician to impending litigation: ▪ A clear error is made (e. Many legal actions are commenced by disgruntled patients who feel their physician did not give them enough time or attention; these patients may then attribute a result that is less than perfect to the carelessness of the physician rather than being an acceptable complication or outcome. The most common announcement of an impending legal action, however, is the receipt of a letter from a lawyer on behalf of the patient. Some of these letters simply request copies of the medical records and may include general questions for the physician about the treatment rendered, the It is essential that complication that occurred, and the current prognosis for the patient. Service of the notice of action is usually accomplished when a document is delivered personally to the defendant physician by a bailif or other process server. In some provinces and territories, the legal action is initiated by a statement of claim, which is again almost always served upon the defendant physician personally. In Québec, this document is called a “Judicial application originating a proceeding” and follows a formal demand letter. The statement of claim sets out, in a concise manner, the facts and particulars upon which the plaintif is relying to establish a cause of action or alleged wrongdoing against the defendant. It is not unusual for the statement of claim to include allegations that challenge the defendant physician’s competence and reputation.

The case of yellow fever may be cited as an example of a treatment regimen for a disease best actonel 35 mg. If the patient was vomiting generic actonel 35mg without prescription, a nitre mixture (consisting of saltpeter, water, and an alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrite) would also be given. The handbook goes on to discuss three cardinal rules to observe in treating yellow fever. First, insure that the patient gets sufficient rest by giving Dover’s powder (which contained opium) and inducing the patient to remain in bed. Third, strengthen the patient by means of weak whiskey and water, beef tea, quinine, and other stimulants. The handbook proved to be so useful that a second edition, revised and expanded appeared in 1904. Containing 101 pages, the second edition was more than twice the size of the original 45-page publication. The work continued to be revised and new editions issued over the course of the twentieth century. In addition to the two editions previously noted, the National Library of Medicine holds editions published in 1929, 1947 (reprinted with additions and changes in 1955), 1978, and 1984. By the 1929 edition, the book’s title had changed to The Ship’s Medicine Chest and First Aid at Sea. With the 1978 edition, the title was slightly altered to The Ship’s Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea, perhaps to emphasize the fact that medical care going beyond what we normally think of as first aid would often be required aboard ships. Although designed for use aboard merchant ships, the work has also found use over the years in other situations, such as on fishing vessels and in backwoods areas. For over 100 years it has filled a need for reliable medical information in cases where medical care by a health professional is not available. Chief Historian United States Public Health Service v Editorial Board and Other Contributors Editor-in-Chief Rear Admiral Joyce M. Ryan, Lake Carriers Association, Cleveland Ohio for sharing old editions of The Ship’s Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea and related books. Concern for the health of merchant mariners has, from the beginning, been a part of our nation’s history. In the 1700’s, legislation mandated that a Medicine Chest be carried on each American Flag vessel of more than 150 tons, provided it had a crew of ten or more. By 1798, a loose network of marine hospitals, mainly in port cities, was established by Congress to care for sick and disabled American merchant seamen. Called the Marine Hospital Service, later the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and finally the Public Health Service, these federal entities continued to provide healthcare to merchant seamen until 1981. The Ship’s Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea has been a part of much of this maritime history. The Public Health Service published the first Medicine Chest in 1881 under the title, Handbook for the Ship’s Medicine Chest. The early editions of the Medicine Chest provided step-by-step instructions on how to treat a variety of illnesses that might be expected underway when the ship was days from shore, and had limited communication with land. The master or designated crewmember had to independently manage whatever injury or illness might occur. Fortunately, for the health of all merchant seamen and others at sea, the world has changed. Modern technology allows for nearly continual “real-time” communication between the ship and shore. In today’s world, serious medical problems underway will be managed via communication with shore-based physicians and other medical resources. More sophisticated tele-medicine capabilities, often including video as well as audio components, are also continually being expanded. As a result of these changes in technology and medical practice, this edition has limited the “how to” aspects of medical management. Instead, it identifies when medical consultation may be needed, and describes how to do a basic physical exam and then how to communicate these medical findings to shore-based experts. As in any aspect of treatment or consultation, effective communication is key to quality healthcare. Prevention, of both acute and chronic disease, will improve the quality of the merchant mariner’s life while at sea, and also many years into retirement. Prevention will also maximize the productivity of the crew and its ability to meet its missions. Coast Guard health capability requirements will be of particular value to merchant mariners.

For example buy discount actonel 35 mg on line, this new program can opportunities is a challenge for many investigators actonel 35 mg lowest price. This challenge was intended to crowd- and development for arthritis and related diseases source human genetics with the ultimate objective by recruiting 1) trainees who are experts in arthritis of identifying genetic predictors that could improve research but would beneft from training in interdis- treatment for those suffering from rheumatoid ciplinary scientifc research and development skills, arthritis. To steer the tors interested in applying their talents to arthritis investigators into the validation phase, Sage Bionet- research, and would beneft from understanding works quickly realized the need to provide training the history and current needs in the feld of arthri- about the history and needs of rheumatoid arthritis tis research (Figure 4). The Arthritis Foundation will research so that investigators new to arthritis could provide curriculum for the interdisciplinary trainings build upon existing knowledge and improve the and identify experts who will be paid for their time deliverables being produced. Arthritis research history and current needs  Trainees and experts  Curriculum b. Interdisciplinary skills to turn scientifc discoveries into real-world uses 03  Pilot test the training program  Local connections are strengthened 04  Evaluate the pilot training program  Quality proposals  Successful scientifc research and development that accomplishes a 05  Revise the training program based on evaluations specifc scientifc goal 06  Implement the training program including ongoing evaluation 07  Track the impact of the training program  Scientifc research pipeline is strengthened and scientifc discovery is catalyzed and accelerated for arthritis and related diseases Building Human Capital: How You Can Be Involved 01  Spread the word about the interdisciplinary training program 02  Be a trainee 03  Identify and provide lessons learned from other mentoring and training programs 04  Volunteer to be an expert who develops or teaches the curriculum 05  Volunteer to assist with planning, implementation and/or evaluation of the program 06  Donate and/or raise funds to support the mission of the Arthritis Foundation 24 “Science has Arthritis on the Run” Arthritis Foundation Scientifc Strategy 2015-2020 25 Goals and Targets he Arthritis Foundation’s mission is to improve lives through leadership in the prevention, control and cure of arthritis and related diseases. The scientifc strategy is the direction the Arthritis Foundation Science Department is going during 2015-2020 to bring everyday wins now and in the future for Ta lifetime of better. Each pillar is designed to champion and accelerate progress for achieving our mission. The goal for each pillar is the impact of the inputs and outputs for each pillar (see Figures 2-4). The three pillars and their goals are as follows: Pillar #1: Delivering on Discovery Improved decision making and better lives through improved prevention, earlier diagnosis and new treatments to prevent, control and cure arthritis and related diseases Pillar #2: Decision Making With Metrics Fact-based metrics for decision making and guiding actions to improve the health of people across the lifespan with arthritis and related diseases Pillar #3: Building Human Capital Scientifc research pipeline is strengthened and scientifc discovery is catalyzed and accelerated for arthritis and related diseases In collaboration with other organizations, the Arthritis Foundation Scientifc Strategy 2015-2020 is contribut- ing to the achievement of the following Healthy People 2020 targets. One of the criteria for selecting these targets is that existing data sources are available to measure progress on meeting the targets. The Biomarkers the movement agnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation — United Consortium. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other 21 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. Arthritis Rheum Biomarkers Project May Lead to Better Quality of Life for Those with 2008;58(1):26–35 Osteoarthritis. Accelerating Medicines Project: arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the ambulatory health care Autoimmune Diseases of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Lupus. Risk factors for symptomatic knee 15 osteoarthritis ffteen to twenty-two years after meniscectomy. Measuring and Improving Impact: A Toolkit for study of radiographic and patient relevant outcomes. Joint injury in young adults Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? A pathway and approach to biomarker validation and qualifcation for osteoarthritis clinical trials. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc As part of the strategic planning process, the Arthritis Foundation identifed organizations conducting scientifc tics and Outcomes in Selected European and U. Risk factors for the incidence 51 Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. The United States Rheuma- Funding, Treatment Education published; has awarded two small research grants 2014. A summary of selected organizations is standards for data collection and management; fve focus provided in this appendix. Komen Komen supports a range of grants from training to large Komen Grant and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. The Colbert lab aims Research Advisory Committee; Chair, Research and promise grants; they are transitioning the program from basic Program to understand the pathogenesis of chronic infammation and Strategic Planning Task Team; and a member of the Great science grants to treatment, early detection and prevention; its impact on structural remodeling of bone in spondyloarthritic West Region Board of Directors. She is Professor Emeritus Komen supports investigator-initiated projects, sponsored diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis. Her academic focus has been the community health grants of Rheumatology at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical education of residents, fellows and community physicians, as Center of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Emery remains committed to fnding a cure possible particularly with childhood onset. Guilak is the Laszlo Ormandy Professor and Vice-Chair The William and Flora Outcome focused grantmaking: a hard-headed approach to Outcome Focused formation in these disorders. Guilak’s research Cancer Research Funding Chief of the Section of Rheumatology, and Professor of focuses on the study of osteoarthritis. Garfeld Weston Canadian organization focused on education, land Weston Mandate At Yale, he teaches graduate and medical students, and laboratory has used a multidisciplinary approach to Foundation conservation, science in Canada’s North, neuroscience directs a research laboratory devoted to understanding investigate the role of biomechanical factors in the onset and translational research and other trustee-initiated grants T lymphocyte differentiation and function in normal progression of osteoarthritis, as well as the development of and autoimmune responses. Craft is Director of the new pharmacologic and stem-cell therapies for this disease. Keck Foundation Grants open to early career investigators; undergraduate Keck Grant program Investigative Medicine Program at Yale, a unique program He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomechanics, education program designed to provide PhD training for physicians. He is Associate Editor for Osteoarthritis & Cartilage, and serves former chair of the Immunological Sciences Study Section on the editorial boards of seven other journals. Tuan is Distinguished Professor; Director, Center for of Research in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Foundation’s Great Lakes Region. Chari and Director of the Center for Musculoskeletal Biology and states: Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky Pennsylvania and West and Executive Vice Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Medicine at Washington University in St. Today the Great Lakes Region carries out the mission Surgery; Associate Director, McGowan Institute for a leader in the feld of orthopaedic research, pioneering the of the Arthritis Foundation by advocating for people who Regenerative Medicine; Director, Center for Military Medicine use of molecular biologic techniques, protein biochemistry, have arthritis, offering programs and services that improve Research; Professor, Departments of Bioengineering and large screening technologies, microscopy and computational the lives of millions of people of all ages diagnosed with Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at the biology to study cell responses to cartilage cell injury and arthritis, as well as investing in cutting-edge research.