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Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients generic 75 mg plavix with amex. Long-acting opioid analgesics 39 of 74 Final Update 6 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 19 generic 75mg plavix visa. Grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions. Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions-Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Effective Health Care Program. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and emta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Transdermal fentanyl versus sustained release oral morphine in strong-opioid naive patients with chronic low back pain. Randomised crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain. Efficacy and safety of a once-daily morphine formulation in chronic, moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis pain: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial and an open-label extension trial. Efficacy and safety of oxymorphone extended release in chronic low back pain: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active- controlled phase III study. Oxymorphone extended-release tablets relieve moderate to severe pain and improve physical function in osteoarthritis: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase III trial. Randomized trial comparing polymer-coated extended-release morphine sulfate to controlled-release oxycodone HCl in moderate to severe nonmalignant pain. The ACTION study: a randomized, open- label, multicenter trial comparing once-a-day extended-release morphine sulfate capsules (AVINZA) to twice-a-day controlled-release oxycodone hydrochloride tablets (OxyContin) for the treatment of chronic, moderate to severe low back pain. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily OROS hydromorphone and twice-daily extended-release oxycodone in patients with chronic, moderate to severe osteoarthritis pain: results of a 6-week, randomized, open- label, noninferiority analysis. ALO-01 (morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride) extended-release capsules in the treatment of chronic pain of osteoarthritis Long-acting opioid analgesics 40 of 74 Final Update 6 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project of the hip or knee: pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. Efficacy of 12 hourly controlled-release codeine compared with as required dosing of acetaminophen plus codeine in patients with chronic low back pain. Treatment of osteoarthritis pain with controlled release oxycodone or fixed combination oxycodone plus acetaminophen added to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs a double blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo controlled trial. A comparison of the efficacy and adverse effects of controlled release dihydrocodeine and immediate release dihydrocodeine in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis and chronic back pain. Paper presented at: The Edinburgh Symposium on Pain Control and Medical Education1989; Edinburgh. Efficacy and safety of controlled release versus immediate release oxycodone randomized, double blind evaluation in patients with chronic back pain. Jamison RN, Raymond SA, Slawsby EA, Nedeljkovic SS, Katz NP. Lloyd RS, Costello F, Eves MJ, James IGV, Miller AJ. The efficacy and tolerability of controlled-release dihydrocodeine tablets and combination dextropropoxyphene/paracetamol tablets in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the hips. Salzman RT, Roberts MS, Wild J, Fabian C, Reder RF, Goldenheim PD. Can a controlled release oral dose form of oxycodone be used as readily as an immediate release form for the purpose of titrating to stable pain control? Arkinstall W, Sandler A, Goughnour B, Babul N, Harsanyi Z, Darke AC. Efficacy of controlled release codeine in chronic non malignant pain a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Weaver DF, Houlden RL. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. Harke H, Gretenkort P, Ladleif HU, Rahman S, Harke O. The response of neuropathic pain and pain in complex regional pain syndrome I to carbamazepine and sustained release morphine in patients pretreated with spinal cord stimulation a double blinded randomized study. The effect of opioids on phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Moulin DE, Iezzi A, Amireh R, Sharpe WK, Boyd D, Merskey H. Randomised trial of oral morphine for chronic non cancer pain. Maier C, Hildebrandt J, Klinger R, Henrich-Eberl C, Lindena G, Group MS. Morphine responsiveness, efficacy and tolerability in patients with chronic non-tumor associated pain - results of a double-blind placebo-controlled trial (MONTAS). Long-acting opioid analgesics 41 of 74 Final Update 6 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 46.

To go to the doctor and discuss the test results can involve a great deal of stress for many patients order plavix 75mg otc. Insensitively informing the patient of a supposedly bad result can lead to further negative results generic plavix 75 mg otc. From the start, patients must be informed about the possible physiological and method-related variability of laboratory tests. In the case of unexpectedly good results, every effort should be 6. Monitoring 251 Figure 2: Untreated patients: Decline of the absolute CD4 T cells (black). Left: A female patient with a relatively slow decay over almost a decade. Note the considerable variation and the low viral load which was below 50 copies/ml without any ART at several time points. Right: A male patient with a rapid decline within only a few months in 2012/2013, developing AIDS (toxoplasma gondii encephalitis). With an earlier initiation of ART (which was started in 2013), this complication could have been avoided. This case argues for carefully monitoring in untreated patients (grey: relative CD4 T-cells) made to contain euphoria. In the long run, this saves time and discussions, and the patient is spared unnecessary ups and downs. We do not consider it advisable for non-physician personnel (without extensive HIV experience) to inform patients of results. Once CD4 T cell counts within the normal range are reached in addition to adequate viral suppression, measurements every six months should suffice, in our opinion. The probability of CD4 T cells dropping to values below 350/µl is extremely low in such cases (Phillips 2003). Among HIV+ patients with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/ml and CD4 T cell counts above 300 cells/µl, the probability of maintaining durable CD4 above 200 cells/µl for 4 years was 99. These data support less frequent CD4 monitoring during viral suppression. In the USA, CD4 T cell measurement is con- sidered to be optional in these patients (Whitlock 2013). Patients who might some- times insist on more frequent monitoring of immune status can be assured that there are usually no detrimental changes in the CD4 T cell count as long as HIV remains suppressed. Influencing factors Several other factors can influence CD4 T cell counts apart from laboratory-related variables. These include concurrent infections, leucopenia of varying etiology and steroids or other immunosuppressive therapies. Extreme exertion, surgical proce- dures or pregnancy can also lead to lower values. Even diurnal variation occurs; CD4 T cells are lower at noon, and highest in the evening around 8 p. Psychological stress seems to play a negligible role, even though patients often assume the contrary. Kinetics of CD4 T cells on ART If untreated, a continuous CD4 T cell decline is seen in the majority of the patients. However, there are discontinuous cases in which the decline may be very rapid after a long stable period (see Figure 2). In an observational cohort collaboration study on 34,384 ART-naive individuals, the mean CD4 T cell decline was -78 (95% CI, -80 to -76) cells/µl per year. The decline was strongly associated with a higher current viral load: for every 1 log10 copies/ml higher, CD4 T cells declined by an additional 37. Of note, neither sex, race nor transmission by injecting drug use was associated with change in either the viral load or CD4 T cell count. In a study of almost 1000 patients, the CD4 T cell count increased by 21/µl per month during the first three months. The initial rapid increase in CD4 T cells is probably due to redistribution, which is followed by the new production of naïve T cells (Pakker 1998). Diminished apoptosis may also play a role (Roger 2002). It is still being debated whether the immune system steadily continues its recovery even after a long period of viral suppression, or whether a plateau is reached after three to four years beyond which there is less improvement (Smith 2004, Viard 2004). Several factors can influence the extent of immune reconstitution during ART. The degree of viral suppression is crucial – the lower the viral load, the more pronounced the effect (Le Moin 2002). The absolute increase is higher if CD4 T cell counts were high at the start of ART (Kaufmann 2000). Naïve T cells still present at initiation of therapy are a particularly important factor for long-term immune reconstitution (Notermans 1999). The larger the thymus and the more active the process of thymopoiesis, the more significant the rise in CD4 T cells is likely to be (Kolte 2002); due to age-related degeneration of the thymus, CD4 T cells in older patients do not increase as much as those in younger ones (Viard 2001).

Since transmission is generally via cats discount 75 mg plavix mastercard, US guidelines recommend not having cats as pets discount plavix 75 mg mastercard. Preferably, cats should be healthy and older than one year; and scratches should be avoided. Bacillary angiomatosis: a newly characterized, pseudoneoplastic, infectious, cutaneous vascular disorder. Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacil- lary angiomatosis-peliosis. Prevalence of Bartonella infection among hiv-infected patients with fever. LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Egbert BM, Beckstead JH, Yen TSB, Stoler MH. Bacillary angiomatosis: the histopathology and differential diagnosis of a pseudoneoplastic infection in patients with HIV disease. Komplett im Plettenberg A, Lorenzen T, Burtsche BT, et al. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-infected patients—an epidemiologi- cal and clinical study. Stoler MH, Bonfiglio TA, Steigbigel RB, et al: An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with AIDS. Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic mold, found largely in moist soil and without a capsule despite its name. The Southern and Midwestern of regions of the US as well as Central America and Africa are endemic areas. Even in the HAART era, morbidity and mortality due to histoplasmosis remains a public heatlh problem in low-income and high-income countries (Review: Adenis 2014). In HIV patients with impaired immunity (85% have less than 100 CD4 T cells/µl), infection leads to an acute, life- threatening disease with dry cough, fever, dyspnea and malaise (Gutierrez 2005, Mora 2008). Miliary TB and PCP are important differential diagnoses. Disseminated courses of disease may also occur, in which the fungus can be detected in bone marrow or by liver biopsy (Albrecht 1994). Skin ulcerations, oropharynx or CNS involvement may also occur (Scheinfeld 2003, Wheat 2005, Antonello 2011). Hepatosplenomegaly is common, occurring in almost 90% of the patients (Mora 2008). Histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining illness whose pathogen like that of cryptococcal antigen can be reliably detected in the blood with an antigen test. Laboratory eval- uations often reveal significantly elevated LDH and alkaline phosphatase as well as transaminases. Amphotericin B should be given as initial treatment. Liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg daily for 14 days) is not only less toxic, but possibly also more effective (Johnson 2002). In milder cases, itraconazole (200 mg BID or TID) is effective, and can also be used as a secondary prophylaxis. It is significantly more effective than fluconazole (Wheat 2002), but is associated with a high risk of interactions, partic- ularly with ritonavir, but also with efavirenz (Crommentuyn 2004, Andrade 2009, Hills-Nieminen 2009). In such cases a modification of the doses is often necessary. With regard to other OIs, secondary prophylaxis for histoplasmosis can be discon- tinued if immune reconstitution is sufficient (Goldman 2004). Initiation of ART and the subsequent immune reconstitution may reveal undiagnosed latent disseminated histoplasmosis (Nacher 2006). Opportunistic Infections (OIs) 405 References Adenis AA, Aznar C2, Couppié P. Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Review of New Developments and Remaining Gaps. Andrade RA, Evans RT, Hamill RJ, Zerai T, Giordano TP. Clinical evidence of interaction between itraconazole and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. Antonello VS, Zaltron VF, Vial M, Oliveira FM, Severo LC. Oropharyngeal histoplasmosis: report of eleven cases and review of the literature. Safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for disseminated histoplasmosis after immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS in panama: a review of 104 cases. Drug-drug interaction between itraconazole and the pro- tease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir.

When these efficacy and safety analyses were induction with VMP/VTP and maintenance with VP/VT were conducted in patients between 65 and 75 years of age plavix 75 mg lowest price, the benefit of associated with similar response rates in patients with adverse continuous treatment with lenalidomide was more evident and thus compared with standard cytogenetics; however plavix 75 mg with visa, these bortezomib- could represent a new standard of care for this patient population. Several 34 shorter in patients with t(4;14) and/or del(17p). The presence of t(4;14) and del(17p) was associ- ated with shorter PFS and OS regardless of the treatment received, Finally, second-generation proteasome inhibitors are being evalu- and this result was similar for patients younger or older than 75 ated as part of consolidation (carfilzomib in a modified schedule) or years. In summary, the first generation of novel agents do not maintenance therapy (ixazomib weekly until disease progression). High-risk cytogenetic profiles ing treatment approaches by taking an individual patient’s profile include del(17p), t(4;14), and/or t (14;16). The first important consideration about this elderly population is that they are a heterogeneous group Table 2 summarizes the role of novel agents in the treatment of and many of them, regardless of their biological age, are physically elderly MM patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. Data frail, with multiple comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes, renal impair- about thalidomide in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormali- ment, cardiovascular disease) and physical disabilities (eg, arthritis, ties are scarce. Recently, results from the Myeloma IX trial of CTDa dementia). A as induction followed by thalidomide maintenance showed that PFS retrospective analysis of 1435 elderly patients receiving bortezomib 492 American Society of Hematology Table 3. Dose adjustment recommendations with respect to the degree of functional impairment for the treatment of elderly patients Dose level Agent Bortezomib 1. Although conflicting results with Mel100-ASCT occurrence of infections, cardiac or gastrointestinal AEs negatively have been reported in the past, this possibility has reemerged for affected survival. It has been explored patients should undertake 3 actions before prescribing treatment: (1) in a phase 2 trial administering bortezomib, pegylated liposomal assess the patient’s biological age, comorbidities, frailty, and doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (PAD), followed by tandem disability (it would be desirable to have simple geriatric surveys to melphalan 100 mg/m2 with stem cell support and consolidation with evaluate whether a patient is frail); (2) evaluate the degree of Len/dex and maintenance with lenalidomide alone. However, the use of consolidation and maintenance with Len/dex are not approved and Outside of clinical trials, the availability of novel drugs differs should currently be restricted to clinical trials. Bortezomib is used by most physicians around the world to For unfit elderly patients, dose adjustments are key to improving treat elderly patients, but whereas most physicians outside of the tolerability. Bortezomib should always be given in a weekly scheme United States offer MP-based combinations, in the United States, and as a subcutaneous formulation, probably in combination with cyclophosphamide as an alkylating agent in combination with low-dose steroids (prednisone may be better tolerated than dexameth- bortezomib or just bortezomib plus corticosteroid are the most asone), considering a low dose of melphalan or, as a probably better commonly used. Of the immunomodulatory drugs, thalidomide is alternative, cyclophosphamide. Oral drugs can be more convenient the most commonly used outside of the United States, in combina- for frail elderly patients; lenalidomide can be given at a standard tion with MP or cyclophosphamide, whereas practice in the United dose with low-dose dexamethasone, whereas thalidomide should States prefers lenalidomide to thalidomide. The For fit elderly patients without comorbidities or disabilities, one toxicity and efficacy of the treatment should be evaluated every option would be an alkylating-containing triplet regimen such as cycle to try to obtain the maximum benefit of this tailored approach VMP or MPT for up to 9 cycles or to complete 1 year of treatment. In patients who have a history of VTE, a bortezomib-based non-alkylator-based combination. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone combination may be a preferred treatment choice because it is less is an available option that has been tested in the UPFRONT trial. However, appropriate anticoagulant prophylaxis has contrast, thalidomide plus dexamethasone is not well tolerated by been shown to reduce VTE complications to 3% in patients elderly patients (at least at high doses). Len/dex, probably as treated with lenalidomide- or thalidomide-containing regimens. In continuous therapy until disease progression, is a very attractive patients with preexisting neuropathy, MPR, Rd, or bendamustine option, but unfortunately has not yet been approved in most plus prednisone would be a good choice for up-front treatment countries. Nevertheless, it is commonly used in the United States. In patients with VTD has also been tested in the Spanish and UPFRONT trials and, renal failure, bortezomib, thalidomide, and bendamustine can be considering its efficacy and toxicity, should be restricted to fit administered at the full approved dose; lenalidomide requires patients without any (especially cardiac) comorbidities. Accordingly, maintenance approaches Hematology 2013 493 should be restricted to clinical trials to address unanswered ques- 6. Oral melphalan and tions such as whether maintenance should be given for all patients, prednisone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with whether there are any clinical or biological characteristics predict- melphalan and prednisone alone in elderly patients with ing benefit from continuous therapy, and which drug and dose are multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial. Melphalan and prednisone With respect to the presence of high-risk features, there is not yet plus thalidomide versus melphalan and prednisone alone or enough evidence to make specific recommendations, although some reduced-intensity autologous stem cell transplantation in el- studies indicate that proteasome inhibitors may be of some value in derly patients with multiple myeloma (IFM 99-06): a ran- these patients. Efficacy of melphalan and Conclusions and future perspectives prednisone plus thalidomide in patients older than 75 years with The availability of new combination regimens, including the novel newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: IFM 01/01 trial. J Clin agents thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved Oncol. Phase III tion of MPT, VMP MPR, and Len-dex provides a new standard of study of the value of thalidomide added to melphalan plus induction for elderly patients. Other combinations, including the prednisone in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple second and third generation of novel drugs, are also under clinical myeloma: the HOVON 49 Study. Maintenance treatment with novel agents is emerging 3160-3166.

We rated the internal validity based on a clear statement of the questions(s); reporting of inclusion criteria; methods used for identifying literature (the search strategy) cheap plavix 75mg without a prescription, validity assessment generic plavix 75mg visa, and synthesis of evidence; and details provided about included studies. Again, these studies were categorized as good when all criteria were met. The overall strength of evidence for a body of evidence for each key question and outcome reflects the risk of bias of the studies (based on quality and study designs), consistency 25 of results, directness of the evidence, and the precision of pooled estimates. Strength of evidence was graded as very low, low, moderate, or high. In order to simplify our approach for this review, we did not grade bodies of evidence in which only a single study was available and “Strength of Evidence” grades are listed as “not applicable” in the Summary of Evidence (Table 7). Data Synthesis We constructed evidence tables showing the study characteristics, quality ratings, and results for all included studies. We reviewed studies using a hierarchy of evidence approach, where the best evidence is the focus of our synthesis for each question, population, intervention, and outcome addressed. Both in the Evidence Tables and throughout the report, for all creatinine levels reported in units of micromole/L, we converted to units of mg/dL by dividing by 88. As there were no occasions in which a particular outcome was reported by a sufficient number of studies that were homogeneous enough that combining their results could be justified, no quantitative analyses were conducted using meta-analyses in this review. Therefore, the data were summarized only qualitatively throughout the report. Peer Review We requested and received peer review of the report from 3 experts. Their comments were reviewed and, where possible, incorporated into the final document. All comments and the authors’ proposed actions were reviewed by representatives of the participating organizations of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project before finalization of the report. Names of peer reviewers for the Drug Effectiveness Review Project are listed at www. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 17 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Public Comment This report was posted to the Drug Effectiveness Review Project website for public comment. We received comments from 3 pharmaceutical companies. RESULTS Overview Literature searches identified 1328 citations. We received dossiers from the manufacturers of aliskiren, irbesartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan. The results of the study selection process are outlined in Figure 1. See Appendix D for the list of studies that were excluded at the full-text level and the reasons for their exclusion. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 18 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Figure 1. Results of literature search 1328 total number of citations identified from searches 1087 excluded at title/abstract level 241 articles retrieved for full-text evaluation 118 articles excluded at full-text level: • 48 outcome not included • 4 intervention not included • 11 population not included • 14 publication types not included • 41 study design not included 123 included publications: • 81 head-to-head trials (in 103 publications) • 2 placebo-controlled trial • 3 systematic reviews (in 4 publications) • 14 observational studies DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 19 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Coronary Heart Disease, Heart Failure, and Left Ventricular Dysfunction Summary of findings • Fourteen trials compared ACE-Is to AIIRAs, either as monotherapy or combination therapy. Aliskiren compared with placebo (combination therapy) (n=1) • In a trial (N=302) of patients with heart failure and hypertension on an ACE-I or an ARB, there was no significant difference in serum creatinine between aliskiren and placebo. Candesartan compared with enalapril (monotherapy and combination therapy) (n=1) • In the RESOLVD trial (N=768, fair quality) at 43-week follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences between treatment with captopril, enalapril, and the combination of the 2 drugs for the 6-minute walk test; New York Heart Association classification; rates of death, heart failure, or other hospitalizations; quality of life; renal dysfunction; or symptomatic hypotension. This trial was stopped early and was not powered for mortality and morbidity. Irbesartan compared with ramipril (monotherapy combined with diuretic) (n=1) • In a small, fair-quality trial (N=150), at 52-week follow-up, there were no significant differences in quality of life, deaths, or rates of hospitalization in patients on diuretics alone, diuretics plus irbesartan, or diuretics plus ramipril. Losartan compared with captopril (monotherapy) (n=3) • Three large, international trials examined this comparison. This reduction was primarily due to a decrease in all-cause mortality with losartan (P=0. There was no significant difference among treatment groups in patients with heart failure for the primary composite endpoint of renal dysfunction, nor was there a significant difference in quality of life or admissions for heart failure. Cardiovascular death was more common with losartan than captopril (P=0. Losartan compared with enalapril (monotherapy and combination therapy) (n=5) • Five small trials compared losartan with enalapril, all in populations with stable heart failure. Three of these studies were of fair quality and 2 were of poor quality. Telmisartan compared with enalapril (monotherapy combined with a diuretic) (n=1) • There were no significant differences within or between treatments with continuation of enalapril compared with switching to various telmisartan dosages, all combined with a diuretic, at 12 weeks of follow-up patients on the outcomes of exercise duration, New York Heart Association classification, or quality of life. Telmisartan compared with ramipril (monotherapy and combination therapy) (n=1) • ONTARGET, a good-quality trial, examined both monotherapy and combination of patients with vascular disease, with median follow-up of 56 months. Results were consistent across all components of the primary outcome. DRIs, AIIRAs, and ACE-Is Page 21 of 144 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project • Combination therapy o Telmisartan combined with ramipril was not significantly better than ramipril alone for the primary outcome, with no significant differences also noted for the secondary outcomes listed above. Valsartan compared with captopril (monotherapy and combination therapy) (n=1) • VALIANT, a good-quality trial, examined patients with an acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction during median follow-up of 24.

Cure rates obtained with five different Helicobacter pylori eradication protocols in patients with duodenal ulcer: A prospective buy plavix 75mg overnight delivery, open-label buy discount plavix 75 mg online, randomized study in a primary care setting in Turkey. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical & Experimental. Seven-day therapy for Helicobacter pylori in the United States. Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Lauritsen K, Delchier JC, et al. One-week triple therapy with esomeprazole provides effective eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease. Proton pump inhibitors Page 86 of 121 Final Report Update 5 Drug Effectiveness Review Project 195. Rabeprazole-based 3-day and 7-day triple therapy vs. Rabeprazole- versus esomeprazole-based eradication regimens for H. Comparison of rabeprazole-based four- and seven-day triple therapy and omeprazole-based seven-day triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer. Age-dependent eradication of Helicobacter pylori with dual therapy. Anagnostopoulos GK, Tsiakos S, Margantinis G, Kostopoulos P, Arvanitidis D. Esomeprazole versus omeprazole for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: results of a randomized controlled study. Pantoprazole versus omeprazole in one-week low-dose triple therapy for curve of H. Effects of genetic differences in CYP2C19 status on cure rates of Helicobacter pylori infection by dual rabeprazole/amoxicillin therapy in comparison with dual omeprazole/amoxicillin therapy. Comparison of rabeprazole-based four- and seven-day triple therapy and omeprazole-based seven-day triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer. A meta-analysis: comparison of esomeprazole and other proton pump inhibitors in eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Systematic review: direct comparative trials of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Tindberg Y, Casswall TH, Blennow M, Bengtsson C, Granstrom M, Sorberg M. Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents by a once daily 6-day treatment with or without a proton pump inhibitor in a double-blind randomized trial. Effective maintenance treatment of reflux esophagitis with low dose lansoprazole. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Daily omeprazole surpasses intermittent dosing in preventing relapse of oesophagitis: a US multi-centre double-blind study. Proton pump inhibitors Page 87 of 121 Final Report Update 5 Drug Effectiveness Review Project 209. Prevention of relapse of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease by lansoprazole: 30 mg every other day or 15 mg daily? Sontag SJ, Kogut DG, Fleischmann R, Campbell DR, Richter J, Haber M. Lansoprazole prevents recurrence of erosive reflux esophagitis previously resistant to H2-RA therapy. Omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg once daily in the prevention of recurrence of reflux oesophagitis. Omeprazole in the long-term treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Escourrou J, Deprez P, Saggioro A, Geldof H, Fischer R, Maier C. Maintenance therapy with pantoprazole 20 mg prevents relapse of reflux oesophagitis. Long-term prevention of erosive or ulcerative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease relapse with rabeprazole 10 or 20 mg vs. Caos A, Moskovitz M, Dayal Y, Perdomo C, Niecestro R, Barth J. Rabeprazole for the prevention of pathologic and symptomatic relapse of erosive or ulcerative gastroesophageal reflux disease.