Ethambutol

By I. Cronos. Philander Smith College.

Acute diarrhea is commonly encountered in developing countries ethambutol 800mg cheap, where traditional herbal remedies are often sought for symptomatic relief buy ethambutol 800mg low price. Thus, identifying and evaluation reputed plants used for diarrhea, in terms of efficacy and safety becomes a necessity. With the object to determine the antidiarrheal efficacy of Seik-phoo (Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb. The watery extracts, in serial dilutions of 3,6 and 12g/kg of Seik-phoo, were administered to 3 groups of mice induced by castor oil to produce experimental diaatthea and the efficacy compard with a nagetive control receiving normal saline and a positive control receiving standard antidiarrheal drug, loparamide. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by 1) effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea (number/type of stools passed), 2) effect on castor oil induced enteropooling (weight/volume of fluid accumulation), and 3) effect on castor oil induced small intestinal transit (passage of charcoal meal). Seik-phoo was found to possessed marked anti-diarrheal effect comparable to loparpmide, as seen by a significant delay in onset on diarrhea in first hour and a market reduction in the number of diarrhea stools (12. In addition, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts showed marked antimicrobial activity against E. The present study signified the antidiarrheal effect of the extracts and their potential usefulness in a wide range of diarrheal states, whether due to disorders of transit (e. In-vivo study of the prophylactic value of some plants against experimentally-induced infection of closed and open wounds. Coptis teeta, (Khan-tauk), Lawsonia alba (Dan-gyi), Quisqualis indica (Dawei-hmaing), and Stephania hernandifolia (Taung-kya-kyet-thway) were tested for in vivo closed wound infected with Staphylococcus aureus Viable bacterial count, tensile strength and tissue collagen content were measured and compared with three control groups, one with parrafin alone treatment, another with sterile gauze alone and with classical drug tetracycline ointment. Influence of cultural characteristics on the utilization of traditional medicine and its impact upon health care in Myanmar. Thaw Zin; Sein Win; Khin Chit; Tin Mg Lay; Kyi Kyi; Kyi May Htwe; Moe Moe Aye; Mya Mya Moe. Traditional Medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skill and prectices based experiences indigenous to different cultures. Two dimensions are concerned with the culture impact on health: emphasis on negative vs positive behavior patterns, and emphasis on internal vs external causal factors. This gives rise to four cultural models: the cultural deficit model, the cultural conflict model, the mainstream conformity model, and the cultural distrust model. In order to understand the influence of cultural characteristics on the utilization of traditional Medicine and its impact upon health care in Myanmar, the present study was carried ouyt on 2 different areas in Myanmar: the Yangon Division and the Southern Shan State. The aim was to study the socio- demographic characteristics and the influence of culture and beliefs on the pattern of decision-making and health care utilization. The study indicated that allopathic health services are many times more available and also more utilized by the community irrespective of its location. The disease morbidity was relatively low in rural area of the Southern Shan State (probably due to healthy environment and less stressful working conditions) and majority of the population that suffered from minor ailments seemed to be successfully taken care of, with available health care facilities, whether it may be allopathic or traditional. The likelihood of conflicts with culture and current healing practices is discussed. Investigation of acute toxicity, anti inflammatory activity& some chemical constituents of Kanzaw [Madhuca lobbii (C. Kanzaw seed oil from Tanintharyi Division of Myanmar has been popularly used as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism, tumor and different type of cancers. The reported distribution of this plant species was not found in any other parts of the world. Two seeds oil samples extracted by means of Traditional method and solvent (pet-ether, 60-80ºC) extraction method were used for chemical and pharmacological investigation and yields of oils based on the dried kernals were found to be 39% and 48% respectively. In the present work, the acute toxicity effect of Kanzaw oil obtained from traditional method was assessed on mice and it showed no toxic symptoms and mortality in mice up to an oral maximal permissible dose (60g/kg) of Kanzaw oil. Anti-inflammatory activity of Kanzaw oil was evaluated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats and it was found that the reduction of paw edema with an oral dose (45g/kg) of Kanzaw oil was comparable to that of standard drug aspirin (300mg/kg). The observation of these two compounds (Lupeol and Campesterol) in the seed oil of Kanzaw [Madhuca lobbii (C. The in vitro model also employed a shorter duration of incubation period of two days with daily renewal of the bathing solution which is suitable for the screening of such indigenous herbal agents. A concentration of 40 to 80mg/ml pineapple significantly killed the test worm during the experimental period of two days. As a prerequisite test for its clinical application and in vivo model using pigs had been done and found satisfactory. The anthelmintic action of fresh pineapple consumed was due to its bromelain content. The mechanism of action of bromelain is due to its proteolytic digestion of the worm’s cuticle. At its edible form and amount, the pineapple possesses sufficient anthelmintic activity even though it was partially destroyed on its passage to the stomach.

An accurate neurological examination could help to determine the type and position of the pathological process: haemotympanum cheap ethambutol 400mg free shipping, postauricular haematoma ethambutol 400mg low cost, periorbital haematoma, and cerebrospinal otorrhoea/rhinorrhoea are indicative of basilar skull fracture. Other fractures of the cranial vault are sometimes palpable, particularly through a scalp lacera- tion, as a depression or stepoff deformity. Moreover, clinical evaluation should focus on occurrence of lucid intervals, amnesia, headache, nausea and vomiting, transient visual obscurations, lack of motor coordination, dizziness, dif¿culty balancing, fatigue, or lethargy. Transtentorial herniation may result in coma, unilater- ally or bilaterally dilated and unreactive pupils, hemiplegia, and Cushing’s triad. Failure to recognise herniation signs will cause irreversible brain damage and death. Small “slit” ventricles and absence of the basal cisterns, according to the Marshall score [13], are signs of mass effect and indicate generalised brain swelling. It has been estimated that 10–20% of moderate brain injury patients further deteriorates and may require more aggressive monitoring and treatment. Deterioration in neurological function is a dire prognostic sign that generally indicates progressive brain damage. Secondary insults can occur in the clinical setting despite clinicians’ best attempts to avoid them. Patients are particularly at risk for secondary insults during transport within and between hospitals. Severity, duration, and number of secondary insults contribute to a poorer outcome. For patients with more severe brain injuries, the effect of extracranial injury on functional outcome is small, whereas in those with milder brain injuries, extracranial injuries have a more pronounced effect. It is believed that with effective neuromonitoring, secondary brain injury can be rec- ognised early and better managed before irreversible injury occurs, thereby improving pa- tient outcome. There are several different, but related, factors that have to be taken into consideration when a mass lesion within the cranial cavity starts to expand. These are the displacement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another or the spinal canal. These herniae, in turn, lead to the de- 26 Clinical Assessment and Diagnostic Procedures in Neurotrauma 309 velopment of pressure gradients because of obliteration of subarachnoid space and cisterns and secondary vascular complications, such as haemorrhage and ischaemic brain damage. There is circumstantial evidence that this information can be used to modify and optimise patient treatment. Pressure autoregulation mechanisms protect against cerebral ischaemia due to hypotension and against excessive Àow (malignant hyperaemia) during hypertension, when capillary damage, oedema, diffuse haemorrhage, and intracra- nial hypertension might otherwise result. At present, no single method can be regarded as a gold-standard measure of cerebral autoregulation. Although a publication earlier this decade found that SjvO2 monitoring does not substantially inÀuence the management of head-injured patients, other studies indicate a clear and practical bene¿t [35, 36]. There are dif¿cul- ties in establishing the relationship between Àow and metabolism in injured brain regions from the global venous drainage of the brain. More clinical studies need to be conducted to unequivocally prove the utility of this interesting noninvasive technology [37]. BtO2 differs from SjvO2 in that it monitors oxygen metabolism in a small, focal volume of brain. Several studies demonstrate that BtO2 is inÀuenced by a wide range of parameters [38]. In conclusion, BtO2 may be a predictor of patient outcome, and speci¿cally, BtO2 <10 mmHg is associated with a greater risk of poor outcome. Biomarkers should be traceable in blood and should be proportional to the mechanical impact and extent of the injury, and their speci¿city is as important as their sensitivity. S-100 proteins are brain-speci¿c calcium-binding pro- teins with small molecular weight (20 kDa) and can be found in the cytoplasm of astroglia and Schwann cells. Although an association between several biomarkers and outcome has been established, the prognostic value of biomarkers is unclear owing to relatively small numbers analysed in univariate analyses [52]. The prognostic value of routinely measured laboratory variables has been more widely investigated. High glucose concentrations, low haemoglobin, low platelets, and coagula- tion disturbances are the strongest predictors of outcome and are independently related to poorer outcome [53–56]. On the basis of the observed association between higher glucose concentration and poorer outcome, two randomised trials were recently done to assess the effect of intensive insulin therapy to reduce glucose concentrations. Hence, large numbers of obser- vations are required before signi¿cant data convergence is achieved providing a consistent picture. The injury usually triggers a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms that in turn create a highly heterogeneous pattern of changes within the brain. The monitoring of comatose head-injured patients in neurointensive care provides information regarding the Àuctuations in cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic function. Following brain trauma, the system of cerebrovascular circulation usually works without feedback information.

Hence cheap ethambutol 800mg overnight delivery, this scientific research has helped in revealing the effectiveness and usefulness of leguminous seeds not only for consumption but also for pharmaceutical uses 600mg ethambutol for sale. Phytochemical investigations of five selected species of Zingiber and pharmacognostic studies on Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The five species of Zingiber were collected from Pyin Oo Lwin and surrounding areas of Yangon during the flowering period (July to November, 2004-2006). According to the morphological characters present in the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plants, these plants have been identified by using available literature. So, an attempt was made to investigate its medicinal properties in the present research. The microscopical characters of root, rhizome and dried rhizome powder were examined to ascertain its identification. Starch and oleoresin were abundantly found and closed collateral type vascular bundle scattered in T. The dried rhizome powder of 5 species was tested to determine the phytochemical characters and physicochemical properties. Terpene, resin and starch were present dominantly and more soluble in water and chloroform. Then the active essential oils present in rhizome were extracted by water distillation method. The odour, taste and yield of essential oil were studied as preliminary examination. Physical measurements such as specific gravity, optical rotation and refractive index were conducted for identification and assessment of purity. The different solvent extracts of rhizome, essential oil and isolated compounds were tested against different microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that the essential oil and isolated compounds showed more significant antimicrobial activity than different solvent extracts. Phytochemical investigations on 4 selected species of Musaceae and pharmacognostic studies on Musa paradisiaca L. The morphology and taxonomy of the vegetative and reproductive parts of four species of Musaceae have been studied, identified and also compared, by using available literature from Botany Department of Yangon University. The collected plant samples were washed and dried at room temperature for about one week and then crushed and powdered by using grinding mill and stored in air tight bottle for future use. The powdered leaf sample of the four species of Musaceae was tested for its phytochemical and physico-chemical properties. It was found that tannin, steroid and resin were present dominantly and it was more soluble in ethanol. In addition, the extraction and isolation of compounds A (β-sitosterol), B (stigmasterol) and C (9, 19 tetracycline triterpene) from leaf powder were performed by using column chromatography method. Antimicrobial activity of the two extracts such as chloroform and 50% ethanol extract; 50% ethanol extract from leaves showed effective antibacterial activities on all tested microorganism except Bacillus pumalis and four isolated compounds, namely β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 9-19 tetracyclic triterpene and gallic acid were investigated against six different microorganism by employing agar well diffusion method. The acute toxicity studies on both aqueous and 50% ethanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca L. The contractile spasmogenic effect of both aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Musa paradisisca L. The observed effects of both extracts were similar to that of acetylcholine-like activity. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cassia fistula Linn. The plants belonging to this family are widely distributed throughout the tropical countries. It is recognized because of its beautiful flowers, laxative activity and cures certain skin infections such as ringworm. The plant parts were pressed for Herbarium sheet and air dried and powdered for further use. The plant parts were investigated for botanical identification, morphological description and histological examinations. Qualitative analysis or phytochemical screening and quantitative analysis of the leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The dried leaves sample was extracted with sodium bicarbonate, concentrated hydrochloric acid to obtain free anthraquinones. The isolation and purification of crude extracts was done by using column chromatography. The antimirobial activity of different rude extracts was tested for skin pathogens suh as Staphylocous aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherihia coli and Candida albians. The antimirobial activity the crude extracts was examined by using agar disc diffusion method and was evaluated by measuring the diameter of inhibiting zones.