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By I. Rhobar. Heritage University.

A classification of captions in comparable corpora of science popularization news Considering the quantitative presence of captions in comparable cor- pora buy caverta 50mg low cost, a first interesting observation that can be made concerns the fact that only 28 images out of 448 do not present captions buy 50 mg caverta otc. As regards the typology outlined in Section 2, data show that the most frequent category of captions found in the three corpora is the summa- rizing one (197 out of 448). Des études suggèrent par ex- emple […]; More than 8,000 different phenolic compounds have been Popularizing Medical Discourse: The Role of Captions 93 identified […]). The Italian caption of Focus is the most summarized one, since it begins with a nominalization (allattamento) to introduce the main topic and then gives only the main gist of what the text is about (il latte materno […] è pericoloso) The second most frequent category of captions identified in the three corpora is that of descriptive captions (109 out of 448). Descrip- tive captions are directly linked to the picture they refer to and they provide a description of the element depicted in the picture or of the data represented in a graph. The following extracts, taken from the three corpora, are representative examples of this type of captions in the different languages: (4) Ce schéma explique les mécanismes en jeu dans cette expérience. Massa/Yale, Science Daily) As we can see in the examples above, the captions signal the relation with the described picture through textual metadiscursive devices (‘endophoric markers’, Hyland 2005) such as ce schema (Futura- Sciences), miniature (Le Scienze), microscope image (Science Daily). Moving on to the third most preferred category of captions, what emerges from the three corpora is a hybrid type of caption mer- ging the two previous categories, i. They are characterized by a first part that anchors the explana- tion to the pictorial representation by means of a description and, then, by a second part in which the content of the science popularization ar- ticle is presented. Examples (7-9) show instances of this type of re- sources found in the three corpora: Popularizing Medical Discourse: The Role of Captions 95 (7) On peut apercevoir des bactéries (en vert) emprisonnées dans une cage en forme de donut (en rouge). Cette expérience, loin d’être farfelue, devrait permettre de mieux comprendre comment les communautés microbiennes communiquent au sein des environnements et développent des infections. Solo centri dotati di queste struttu- re sono abilitati a ospitare e studiare virus altamente letali come quello di Ebola (© Christian Charisius/dpa/Corbis, Le Scienze) (9) Minamata Bay at Dusk: From 1932 to 1968, Chisso Corp. Minamata Bay at Dusk; Un laboratorio con livello di biosicurezza 4) often by making reference to physical characteristics such as colours and forms and by using verbs of perception (e. In fact, in our corpora we found: 1) captions using a paragraph (24 out of 448), 2) captions using the news’ title (15 out of 448), and 3) captions using quotations from the article (16 out of 448). As for captions using quotations, on the other hand, direct quotations (as in examples 10-12) are the most used (ten out of 16) followed by indirect ones (four out of 16). Popularizing strategies used in captions According to the data of our corpora, captions align with the strategies of popularization typical of popularized science text, i. As concerns the categories of captions identified above, it is possible to say that summarizing captions generally involve a process of generalization (44% of all captions). The attention system is too highly activated and also notices – for ex- ample when watching the television or when talking to someone – completely unimportant extraneous noises. As a matter of fact, by providing a description of the picture, captions also give an explanation of a specific process that is highlighted in the article it refers to. The following examples are in- stances of descriptions in the three languages: (16) The Bielefeld chemist Michael Schwake and his colleagues have discovered a new protein fold. Recourse to quotations in captions help contribute to em- phasizing authoritativeness of the sources of the article, and at the same time, it serves as a form of hedging, limiting the journalist’s res- ponsibility since he/she simply reports something stated by someone else. As is possible to observe in the table, French magazines tend to use more summarizing captions (147 instances), whereas English maga- zines show an equal preference for descriptive and summarizing cap- tions (46 occurrences for both categories). French magazines, conversely, are almost the only ones (apart from two instances in Science Daily) in which it is possible to find the category captions using title (13 occur- rences). Similarly, the classes captions using paragraphs and using quotations are nearly exclusively adopted in English science populari- zation magazines (20 and 13 instances respectively). Conclusions The results of our analysis show that even though there are differences between corpora which might be due to culture-based (in terms of nationality) ways of dealing with science and of using popularizing re- sources, there are also some striking similarities in terms of function, which seem to be distinctive of the popularization of medical-scienti- fic discourse. In this way, captions serve to anticipate the content of the text and they allow the potential audience to have a better understanding of the phe- nomena described in the articles. A second important function of captions that our evidence indi- cates is the descriptive one (descriptive captions) since they explain the main physical characteristics of the elements depicted in the image they are linked to. Hence, they enhance the reader’s comprehension by means of simple references to the image, explaining what cannot be drawn from an in- tuitive mental process. Moreover, a third function of captions identified in our data is anchoring the image to a specific part of the article (captions using title, paragraphs or quotations). To conclude, it is possible to confirm our initial hypothesis that images and captions offer invaluable help in the construction of strate- gies of science popularization even though they have been scarcely considered by the literature. In fact, they provide important cognitive 102 Silvia Cavalieri guidelines, interpretive framework as to how to correctly and effect- ively process the information contained in the whole article. Acknowledgements This research has been carried out in collaboration with Dr Alida Maria Silletti (Università degli studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”) for the collection of the corpus as well as for the analysis of French and Italian data. The Analysis of Popularization Discourse: Con- ceptual Changes and Methodological Evolutions In Kermas, Susan / Christiansen, Thomas (eds) The Popularization of Spe- cialized Discourse and Knowledge across Communities and Cultures. Introduction Recent years have seen a growing interest in the application of pragmatic aspects of communication in the area of research into language disorders.

They developed a theoretical basis for able by the following expression after the intraven- À1 the performance of this analysis from data ous bolus dose order caverta 100 mg with amex, with C0 ˆ 45:0andK ˆ 0:50h : obtained from the observation of the time course of pharmacological response caverta 50mg sale, after a single dose of À0:50t C ˆ 45:0e drug, by any route of administration. Considering such a model, assuming (a) first- example, a chain of biochemical events triggered by order input/output processes and (b) extravascular the presence of drug (e. The con- At equilibrium, C will be equal to Ce=Kp by defin- centration of drug in the effect compartment, Ce,is ition, and thus: obtained by dividing Ae by the effect compartment volume, Ve: ke0D  ÀKt Àk tà C ˆ e À e e0 e V1(ke0 À K ) kle D  ÀKt k tà C ˆ e À e e0 e Ve(ke0 À K ) This is how the link-model relates the kinetics in plasma to the kinetics of drug in the effect com- At equilibrium, the rates of drug transfer between partment. It can also be thought of in terms of the rate of presentation of a drug to a specific and the equation for the turnover of clotting factor tissue, determined by, for example, tissue perfusion [P] was: rate, apparent volume of the tissue, and eventual P Q diffusion into the tissue. This con- out often a delay between occurrence of maximum stant can be obtained experimentally from the slope drug concentration in the effect compartment and of a ln (P) vs. Setting the baseline value of clotting factor activity in the absence of warfarin (P0)toa fixed mean of three predose measurements, the pro- 140 gram can estimate that parameter. The use of intrinsic clearance in vitro permits predictions between species for the particu- As stated before, the intensity of a pharmaco- lar enzyme/route of metabolism concerned. Rather, it may be the net tabolism for any particular compound, then this result of several processes only one of which is will weaken the predictive value of the in vitro influenced by the drug. Similarly, allometric scaling works enced by the drug must be identified and an at- best for compounds with a high component of tempt made to relate plasma drug concentration to non-enzymatic elimination, such as our model changes in that process. This prediction weakens as vari- binemic) effect is an inhibition of the synthesis of ations in rates of enzymatic reactions become more certain vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Unlike the flow chart of a computer pro- gram, after which the diagram is modeled, most of Prospectus the decisions are made in discussions among com- mittee members, and may not necessarily be based In the future, models will exist which will link on hard and fast criteria. Phase I study in humans, we have used the symbol In the shorter term, what can we now do to 1 to represent work that can be expedited by good expedite the drug selection process? The symbol 2 represents represents a flow chart illustrating one form of the tasks that can be expedited by on-line pharma- metabolism/pharmacokinetics input into the drug cokinetic modeling. As the doses are escalated, do the kinetics of (and other feedback) leading to corrections and the drug appear to be linear or non-linear over revisions. In later expos- measure in humans, are the pharmacokinetics ures, the dose is escalated according to some pre- of metabolite(s) linear and as predicted? Does the relationship between concentration plasma associated with undesirable properties in and effect change with dose, time and duration animals are reached, and/or until some other of treatment? If possible, responses to the be in vitro predictors of oral availability, and meas- drug are also measured when relevant to the ures of potentially toxic metabolites. In vitro biochemistry is followed by is in line with predictions based on the pharmacoki- initial in vivo work in the rat, which is conducted netic and pharmacodynamic properties of the drug with pharmacokinetic support and in vitro drug in animals. Compounds meeting pre- Once Phase I is complete, the human becomes arranged criteria proceed through pharmacological the first-choice test species, under all but the most screening to general pharmacology and toxicology, specialized of circumstances (e. In this context, Phase I serves as the the development of pharmacokinetic and pharma- interface between preclinical research and clinical codynamic models. We believe that with enhanced integrated study of In this scheme, Phase I is influenced by pharma- animals and humans, and with data feedback based cokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling. This on computer models, the process of drug discovery modeling is used to refine the Phase I protocol, pro- from synthesis to proof of safety in humans could be viding advice on sampling times, doses, and warning dramatically improved in its efficiency. The objective is expeditious choice of be used to permit a larger number of compounds thebestcompound,withtheever-presentlimitations with better prospects, from a single research pro- on information available. Conse- involve feedback from Phase I to renewed chemical quently, the extremely costly testing programs in synthesis, as well as choice of a second or third patients which follow Phase I could be started compound for human testing. Levy G (1964) Relationship between elimination rate of drugs Boxenbaum H, Ronfeld R (1983) Interspecies pharmacokinetic and rate of decline of their pharmacologic effects. Proposed relationships between response and drug concen- Shimada T, Yamazaki H, Minura M et al (1994) Inter-individual tration in the intact animal and man. Increasingly In former times, it was assumed that development sophisticated data are now developed at earlier and of drugs proceeded in step-wise fashion from Phase earlier stages of drug development. After approval, cer- any generally agreed definitions except, perhaps, tain studies to find new indications, address special that the studies are run by different teams. It would be unreasonable to study the pharma- caused this blurring: time, finance, and an evolving cokinetics of relatively toxic agents, at poten- regulatory environment. Cytotoxic and antiviral drugs are two even for the largest pharmaceutical companies, important classes of agent where this is com- are generally much greater than in the past. Regulatory author- doses at which tolerability must be confirmed ities have increased in their scientific sophistication are unknown until the exposure of patients can during the last 30 years. There are some diseases which have no animal Bias is a general consideration in clinical trial model or relevant pharmacodynamic or surro- design, regardless of the type of trial being con- gate end-points in normal volunteers. It is considered here as an overarching eases may also alter the pharmacokinetics of issue, to be applied to the systematic description the drug, thus invalidating anything that of the types of study design, as considered below. No context it is best described as a distortion of, or animal species has migraine, and normal volun- prejudice towards, observed effects that may or teers cannot report an antimigraine effect. The classical four- ability to talk to and understand statisticians is phase strategy of drug development is far too absolutely essential (sine qua non: involve a good stereotyped, simplistic and pedestrian to have sur- statistician from the moment a clinical trial is vived into the modern era of drug development. It is also true creating clinical hypotheses, translate them into the that if you measure 100 different variables, on two precise quantities of a measured end-point, and occasions only, before and after administration of then interpret the results.

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