By G. Ali. Washington University in Saint Louis.
Note that most of the examples for citations provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine safe doxycycline 100mg. Citation Rules with Examples for Manuscript Collections Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference doxycycline 200mg without a prescription. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Gerard de Pouvourville becomes de Pouvourville, Gerard • Keep compound surnames even if no hyphen appears Sergio Lopez Moreno becomes Lopez Moreno, Sergio Jaime Mier y Teran becomes Mier y Teran, Jaime Virginie Halley des Fontaines becomes Halley des Fontaines, Virginie • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the word compiler. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specifc role, that is, translator. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini, Ettore (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy). Barbulescu, Mihai (Clinica Chirurgicala, Spitalul Clinic Coltea, Bucarest, Romania). Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 9. Manuscript collection with author/compiler afliation 864 Citing Medicine Title for Manuscript Collections (required) General Rules for Title • Enter the title of the collection as assigned by the library, archive, or other holder of the collection • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present • End a title with a period Specific Rules for Title • Titles not in English • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character Box 48. Because the title of a manuscript collection is assigned by the library or other archive housing the collection, the title will be in the language of the country where the library or archive is located, regardless of the language of the materials contained in the collection. To cite a collection in a non-English speaking country: • Provide the title in the original language for non-English titles found in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Manuscript collection with items not in English Type of Medium for Manuscript Collections (required) General Rules for Type of Medium • Indicate the specifc type of medium (microflm, microfche, etc. Manuscript collection in microform Secondary Author for Manuscript Collections (optional) General Rules for Secondary Author • A secondary author modifes the work of the author. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: • List all the roles in the order they are given • Separate the roles by "and" • End secondary author information with a period Example: Jones, Albert B. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Manuscript collection with author and compiler Date for Manuscript Collections (required) General Rules for Date • Give the date range of the items in the collection • Enter the earliest date of the items in the collection, a hyphen, and the latest date of the items. Te date range for a manuscript collection may follow the author names in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used. Manuscript collection with dates estimated 874 Citing Medicine Extent (Pagination) for Manuscript Collections (optional) General Rules for Pagination • Give the total number of the items in the collection • End with a semicolon and a space if Physical Description is provided; end with a period if there is no physical description Specific Rules for Pagination • Collection bound in volumes • Number of items unknown Box 58. A collection of manuscripts may be bound in volumes rather than being placed in boxes or other containers. When this occurs: • Express extent as the number of volumes • Abbreviate volume to vol. A collection may be so large that an exact count of the number of items in it has not been made. Manuscript collection with extent estimated Physical Description for Manuscript Collections (optional) General Rules for Physical Description • Give the total number of containers holding the collection and/or the total number of linear feet of shelf space the collection occupies • Follow with the type of container or the words linear feet, such as 3 boxes or 10 linear feet • End with a period • Give information on the total number and physical characteristics of the items in the collection if they reside in a microform, such as 26 microfche: black & white, 4 x 6 in. Specific Rules for Physical Description • Language for describing physical characteristics • More than one type of medium Box 60. If a manuscript is found on microfche, microflm, or microcards: • Begin with information on the number and type of physical pieces, followed by a colon and a space Box 60 continues on next page...
Snyder D purchase 100mg doxycycline mastercard, Morgan C (2004) Wide variation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation inter- ruption intervals among commercially available automated external de¿brillators may affect survival despite high de¿brillation ef¿cacy cheap doxycycline 100mg visa. Young C, Bisera J, Gehman S et al (2004) Amplitude spectrum area: measuring the probability of successful de¿brillation as applied to human data. Ristagno G, Gullo A, Berlot G et al (2008) Electrocardiographic analysis for predic- tion of successful de¿brillation in human victims of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, the heart has minimal ca- pability for extracting additional oxygen, and increases in metabolic demands can only be met by autoregulatory increases in coronary blood Àow through vasodilation of the coro- nary circuit . Consequently, a severe energy imbalance develops when cardiac arrest occurs and coronary blood Àow ceases. The severe energy imbalance continues during the ensuing resuscitation effort when current closed-chest resuscitation techniques are used because of the very limited capability for generating systemic and coronary blood Àow . A lesser energy de¿cit is expected during cardiac arrest with a quiescent or minimally active heart (i. Moreover, with reperfusion during resuscitation, multiple pathogenic mechanisms – col- lectively known as reperfusion injury – are activated and further contribute to myocar- dial injury. Accordingly, the resuscita- tion effort typically proceeds – and occasionally succeeds – in the presence of ischaemia and in the midst of reperfusion injury. These abnormalities can be grouped into those that manifest during the resuscitation effort and those that manifest after the return of spontaneous circula- tion. The larger the distensibility, the larger the preload, and the larger the amount of blood that can be ejected by chest compression. This effect prevent- ed haemodynamic deterioration that characteristically occurs during chest compression, maintaining a stable coronary perfusion pressure above the resuscitability threshold of 10 mmHg in pigs and yielding higher resuscitation rates . Hearts with less ¿rm myocardium showed some, albeit insuf¿cient, spontaneous contrac- tions. Hearts with soft myocardium regained contractions and were able to generate a peripheral pulse in most instances. Under these conditions, haemodynamic ef¿cacy of the resuscitation technique becomes of paramount importance for successful de¿brillation. The underlying cell mechanisms are complex but promi- nently involve cytosolic Ca2+ overload and after-depolarisations. There are repolarisation abnormalities that include shortening of the action potential duration, decreased action potential amplitude and development of action potential alternans, creating conditions for re-entry. Dysfunction occurs despite full restoration of coronary blood Àow and is largely reversible, conforming to the de¿nition of myocardial stunning. From a functional perspective, diastolic dysfunction may limit the compensatory ventricular dilatation required to overcome de- creases in contractility according to the Frank–Starling mechanism . The other relates to more recent work using erythropoietin in a rat model of cardiac arrest  and in a small clinical study in patients suffering out-of-hospi- tal cardiac arrest . Dur- ing the ensuing resuscitation effort, the myocardium is reperfused with blood that typically has a normal pH, resulting in the washout of protons that accumulated in the extracellular space during the preceding interval of no-Àow cardiac arrest. This intensi¿es sarcolemmal Na+–H+ exchange and the resulting Na+ entry [34, 44, 45]. The cytosolic Na+ excess, in 3 turn, drives sarcolemmal Ca2+ inÀux through reverse-mode operation of the sarcolemmal Na+–Ca2+ exchanger, leading to cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload , causing a myriad of detrimental effects. Cytosolic Ca2+ overload during ischaemia and reperfusion has been identi¿ed as a primary effector of mitochondrial injury. Mitochondria can sequester large amounts of cytosolic Ca2+, a process regulated by the Ca2+ uniporter for inÀux and by the Na+–Ca2+ exchanger for efÀux . However, as matrix Ca2+ levels progressively rise, the mitochon- drial Na+–Ca2+ exchanger becomes saturated and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload ensues . Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload can worsen cell injury in part by compromising its capability to sustain oxidative phosphorylation  and by promoting the release of proapoptotic factors . Mechanisti- cally, these bene¿ts are associated with less cytosolic Na+ overload, less mitochondrial 168 R. Compression depth was adjusted to maintain an aortic diastolic pressure between 26 and 28 mmHg in the ¿rst series and between 36 and 38 mmHg in the second series. Within each series, rats were randomised to receive cariporide (3 mg/kg) or NaCl 0. In rats that received cariporide, the compression depth required to generate a given level of systemic and organ blood Àow was markedly reduced compared with in rats that received the vehicle control. This was the case when cariporide was combined with epinephrine in our pig model  and when combined with epinephrine and with vasopressin in our rat model . Rats from the last two time events were randomised to receive Na+-limiting intervention immediately before starting chest com- pression or vehicle control. Limiting sarcolemmal Na+ entry attenuated increases in cytosolic Na+ and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload during chest compression and the postresuscitation phase. After this interval, extracorporeal circulation was started and systemic (extracorporeal) blood Àow adjusted to maintain a coronary perfusion pressure at 10 mmHg for 10min before attempting de¿bril- lation and restoration of spontaneous circulation. The target coronary perfusion pressure was chosen to mimic the low coronary perfusion pressure generated by closed-chest resus- citation.
Important social discount doxycycline 200 mg mastercard, occupational generic doxycycline 100mg without prescription, or recreational activities are given up or reduced. Marked tolerance; needs greatly increased amounts of the drug—at least 50% increase—to achieve the desired effect or a notably diminished effect occurs with continued use of the same amount. In addition, some symptoms of the disturbance have persisted for at least a month or have occurred repeatedly over a longer period. Severity Mild Few, if any symptoms are present in excess of those required to make the diagnosis, and the symptoms result in no more than mild impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relation- ships with others. Severe Many symptoms are present in excess of those required to make the diagnosis, and the symptoms greatly interfere with occupational functioning or usual social activities or relationship with others. Partial remission During the past 6 mo, there has been some use of the substance and some symptoms of dependence. Full remission During the past 6 mo, either there has been no use of opioids, or opioids have been used and there were no symptoms of dependence. Either of the following: • Cessation of (or reduction in) opioid use that has been heavy and prolonged (several weeks or longer) • Administration of an opioid antagonists after a period of opioid use B. Three (or more) of the following, developing within minutes to several days after Criterion A: • Dysphoric mood • Lacrimation or rhinorrhea • Nausea or vomiting • Diarrhea • Muscle aches • Fever • Pupillary dilation, piloerection, • Yawning or sweating • Insomnia C. The symptoms in Criterion B cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder. By contrast, lofexidine has been used in detoxification from opiates with fewer side effects (20). Maternal opiate withdrawal syndrome may be life threatening for the fetus, and special care should be taken to ensure that a pregnant, opiate- dependent woman’s medication is continued while she is in custody. There should be a low threshold for referral for hospital assessment, especially in the third trimester. Buprenorphine (Subutex ) Buprenorphine is an opioid with mixed agonist-antagonist properties that may be abused or used as an alternative to methadone in detoxification from opiates (21). It is taken sublingually, and self-administration of the drug in the custodial environment must be personally supervised by the doctor who should observe the patient for 5 min to ensure that the drug has fully dissolved (22). An unusual property of buprenorphine is that after chronic administration the onset of the abstinence syndrome is delayed. Heroin addicts who are depen- dent on a small dose of opiate can be transferred onto buprenorphine, which can be withdrawn fairly easily because of the delayed onset of the abstinence 294 Stark and Norfolk Table 7 Half-Lives and Observation Times Required After Acute Narcotic Overdose Duration of action Observation Opioid via iv route t 1/2 time Methadone May be days 15–72 24–36 (Dolophine, Amidone) Morphine Usually 2-4 h 3 6 Heroin Usually 2-4 h v. However, if it is given to an individual dependent on large doses of opiates, the antagonist properties precipitate withdrawal symptoms (23). Naloxone Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that reverses the effects of severe intoxi- cation (Table 7). The use of naloxone may precipitate withdrawal in addicted patients, but in initial doses of 0. The half- life of naloxone is shorter than that of most opiates; therefore, a period of obser- vation in the hospital is required after administration. It is recommended to give half the dose intravenously and half intramuscularly (absorption is slower and the antidotal activity prolonged); this is useful, because individuals often dis- charge themselves once awakened. In the prehospital environment, naloxone should only be given where there is life-threatening opiate poisoning with a respiratory rate lower than 8/min, a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 8, or when the airway is at risk (25). Heroin may be taken in combination with cocaine (“speedball”), and the use of naloxone in this situation may precipitate ventricu- lar dysrhythmias (26). Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines produce physical and psychological dependence and are therefore only recommended for limited periods (27). The drugs are commonly misused either illicitly, which usually involves high doses, or by persistent thera- peutic use at a lower dose. Substance Misuse 295 Table 8 Manifestations of Sedative-Hypnotic Drug Intoxication and Withdrawal Mild Sedation, disorientation, slurred speech, ataxia, nystagmus Severe Coma, hypoventilation, hypotension, hypothermia, depressed or absent corneal, gag and deep tendon reflexes Withdrawal Anxiety, insomnia, irritability, agitation, anorexia, tremor, seizures Manifestations of intoxication and withdrawal are given in Table 8. Tol- erance usually develops after continuous use, slowly for those drugs that have a long half-life but more quickly for the short-acting drugs (29). Benzodiaz- epines are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administra- tion; food can delay the rate but not the extent of absorption. Side effects of use include daytime drowsiness, aggravation of depres- sion, and anterograde amnesia (30) at therapeutic doses, the risk increasing at high dosages. Amnesic effects may be associated with inappropriate behaviors and other paradoxic behavioral responses, such as increased aggression, excite- ment, confusion, and restlessness (31,32). Rage reactions with violent behavior are most likely in people with a history of aggressive behavior or unstable emo- tional behavior. Anxiolytics lower tolerance to alcohol and in high doses pro- duce mental confusion similar to alcohol intoxication.
For those suffering from de- generative neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease generic doxycycline 200mg with mastercard, the prob- lem appears even more substantial (35) generic doxycycline 200 mg mastercard. As a consequence, a great deal of studies have been devoted to the study of posture and balance alterations in elderly subjects and patients affected by neurological diseases. These deficits include a postural instability with falling, slowness of gait initiation along with short steps and a freezing phenomenon which makes gait initiation extremely difficult or no longer possible (37-42). Disorders of movement function related to posture, bal- ance, and gait are common occurrences for many persons with Parkin- son’s disease. Numerous studies have identified a broad variety and het- erogeneous distribution of postural and locomotor changes (43). In pa- tients with Parkinson’s disease there is reduced load sensitivity and de- creased leg extensor activation, which might contribute to the movement disorder in gait (44, 45). The main impairment occurs in the lateral plane (48), where the stability depends mainly on the hip joint control (49); the balance control becomes more dependent on ankle dorsiflexors’ activity and on vision (50, 51). The deficit does not result mainly from a miscalculation by the sensory input monitoring balance (52) or an inap- propriate perception of their balance (8) but rather on difficulty in accu- rately controlling the output stage, at which many dysfunctions have been reported to occur (51). As far as the stretch-related responses to postur- al perturbation are concerned, little evidence exists that the disease sig- nificantly affects these responses. On the contrary, quadriceps antagonist latencies are earlier than normal, resulting in coac- tivation at the knee not present in control subjects. The reduced sensitivity of the gastrocne- mius muscle to stretch correlates with an inability to compensate for the perturbations (51). In the patients, the gastrocnemius response is fol- lowed by enhanced activation of the tibialis anterior muscle. The angular rotation at the ankle joint induced during faster backward-directed dis- placements is slower than that in normal subjects, despite identical amounts of gastrocnemius electromyographic activity (51). This decreased capability corre- lates significantly with the increased severity of the disease as assessed through the Webster rating scale. In fact, patients with demen- tia of the Alzheimer type, though having abnormalities in the basal gan- glia, have no difficulty in changing postural set in response to altered sup- port conditions (63). Spasticity Hemiparetic patients often stand asymmetrically and with broader stance than normals; further, sway during quiet stance is larger than in normal subjects (72). Further, the normal sequence of activation first in the distal and then in the proximal muscles in response to a postural per- turbation is lost. In fact, in hemiparetic patients the proximal and distal muscles of the affected limb are coactivated, whilst on the so-called healthy side the timing of muscle activation is normal (75). Peripheral neuropathy Eliminating vision does not necessarily increase postural sway in qui- et stance, nor does it result in longer latencies to postural perturbations suggesting that vision is not as critical as somatosensory information for postural control (82-84). Nevertheless, vision can be an important substi- tute for loss of somatosensory or vestibular function (83, 85). Sway dur- ing stance on a firm surface is larger than normal in subjects with so- matosensory loss due to diabetic peripheral neuropathy (86-92). Diabetic patients with loss of somatosensory information due to pe- ripheral neuropathy have significantly delayed latencies of postural re- sponses to surface displacements (92, 93). As a matter of fact, patients with peripheral neuropathy have an approximately 23 times higher risk of falling than do healthy control subjects (94, 95). This finding has implications for understanding how patients with peripheral neuropathy may benefit from a cane for postural stability in stance (96). Patients with other types of sensory loss, as tabes dorsalis (97) or Friedreich’s ataxia (98,99), show increased power spectrum of body sway during quiet stance with a peak around 1 Hz. Conversely, diabetic patients may develop sensorimotor dis- tal symmetric polyneuropathy involving both large and small afferent fi- bres (102). This suggests that the signal coming from the length-sensitive spindle secondaries is better suited than that from the spindle primaries in detecting the slow changes in length of the leg muscles due to the displacements of the body centre of mass during quiet stance. Vestibular deficit Patients with acute unilateral lesion exhibit body oscillations mainly di- rected toward the affected labyrinth (103, 104). Quiet stance is usually not impaired in patients with compensated vestibular disorders (105). An adap- tive increase in somatosensory loop gain occurs in patients with chronic loss of vestibular system (106, 107). The cause of this instability may be twofold; the more basic being the impairment of vestibulo-spinal re- flexes (104, 114). Chronic bilateral vestibular deficit does not affect postural reflexes not even with eyes closed (82, 83, 93, 104, 115). This phenomenon sug- gests that integrity of labyrinthine reflexes is not a necessary condition for the occurrence of postural reflexes.
Fluid and small food particles are transported into the cecal lumen by peristaltic movements of the A pair of pheasants can be maintained and bred in an small intestine and antiperistaltic movements of the aviary with a floor space 4 by 6 meters with an rectum discount doxycycline 200mg amex. These digestion of cellulose occurs in the ceca order 200mg doxycycline with visa,12 and species species are best maintained in open-air enclosures or like grouse and snowcocks that feed on foods with big gardens. One pair of Bobwhite or California Quail high amounts of crude fiber have particularly well needs a minimum of 1. Tropical or subtropical species maintained in cold climates require an indoor aviary Urinary and Reproductive System or, if kept outdoors in winter, a heated shelter. The mesh size of netting should be small enough to pre- The testicles are generally yellowish or white, but vent a bird from placing its head through the mesh. The ductus deferens and, in some species, an enclosure should be loose to provide some give and enlarged area of the caudal ductus deferens, serve as reduce the chances of head and neck injuries. Gallinaceous opaque barrier can be placed at the back of the aviary, cocks have a non-erectile phallus. Husbandry Perches should be placed far enough from walls or wire netting to prevent the tail or wing feathers from contacting these surfaces. Peafowl, Reeve’s Pheas- ant, argus pheasants and Phoenix Fowl require espe- Most gallinaceous birds are best maintained in com- cially high perches, three to four meters above the bination indoor and outdoor aviaries and can live to ground, to accommodate their long tail feathers. Curved corners or dense bushes planted in the corners reduce the possibility of trauma. Too many plants will make an aviary Losses to predators can occur in open-topped facili- difficult to clean. Rare species not recommended when keeping birds that are should not be maintained in an open-topped enclo- highly susceptible to infectious diseases. A breeder who uses open-topped enclosures with a concrete floor that is covered with an ex- should expect that the loss of a bird to a predator is changeable layer of sand meets the needs of sensitive the responsibility of the breeder and not the fault of species (like grouse or the Cheer Pheasant) and is the predator. Plants may be grown in cially the Indian peafowl and guineafowl during the containers that are removed when the aviary needs breeding season, and should be maintained in se- cleaning. Some species like monals, eared pheas- ants and the Cheer Pheasant use their upper bill to search the soil for roots and insects. If these birds are Nutrition maintained on artificial substrate, natural abrasion of the bill will not occur and manual trimming will be necessary. Most gallinaceous birds like to take dust or sand Many diseases and problems in captive Galliformes baths. The placement of abrasive materials on the are directly or indirectly related to malnutrition. Insect powders should be mands (with respect to maximal egg or meat produc- used only if they are known to be nontoxic for the tion and not for longevity and appearance) is avail- species concerned and only if the birds in fact have able only for the domestic fowl, domestic turkey and parasites. All nutritional Various bird species should generally not be mixed in guidelines for other gallinaceous birds are based on one aviary because of possible interspecific aggres- experience. If species are combined, it is best to mix birds Generally, the protein requirement increases at the that do not compete for the same food or biotope. After the breeding season, the with bush- or tree-living species like thrushes, bab- amount of protein in the feed should be gradually blers, starlings, bulbuls and doves (with the excep- reduced. With any change in the diet, the new feed tion of the Ground Pigeon); however, mixing of spe- should be mixed slowly into the daily diet until the cies is not recommended. The nutri- Lady Amherst’s Pheasant, Elliot’s Pheasant, Swin- tional requirements of Common Pheasant, Golden hoe’s Pheasant and Indian peafowl can be main- Pheasant, Lady Amherst’s Pheasant, Silver Pheas- tained in open-air enclosures that are fenced but not ant, peafowl, guineafowl, turkeys, partridges and covered. Birds in open-air enclosures must have suf- New World quail are relatively easy to provide. Higher trees mercial diets for domestic fowl, domestic turkey, should be available for roosting. Fruit trees or oaks Common Pheasant and Japanese Quail are available (some are poisonous) provide a food source as well as in many countries. The flight capacity of a bird should be reduced be used in species without special requirements. Add- by clipping the wings before introducing it to new ing fresh green plants to the diet provides the birds surroundings. Outside the breeding season, a maintenance Free-ranging Blood Pheasants feed on mosses, li- diet containing less than 20% crude protein is best. They Commercial diets for domestic turkey are usually browse constantly in planted aviaries. Snowcocks eat better suited for pheasants than diets developed for mostly grasses and leguminous plants. Feeding is best accomplished by pro- feed on these plants immediately after hatching. In captivity, tragopans can be fed lucerne, grasses, Most New World quail are primarily seed-eaters and cucumbers, apples and different kinds of berries. Forest-adapted species may be the spring, summer and autumn, grouse feed on a largely insectivorous and have higher and more spe- variety of plants. In the winter, most grouse species cific protein requirements in comparison to other are restricted to consuming one or a few plant spe- gallinaceous birds.